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# Earth Moon System - Astronomy

9th grade Earth Science Utah Standard 1 Core Curriculum
by

## Cassie Grether

on 30 September 2014

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#### Transcript of Earth Moon System - Astronomy

Earth & Moon System
Astronomy 1
Important Terms for Today
rotation: the act of rotating as if on an axis
axis: the center around which something rotates
revolve or revolution: move in an orbit
geocentric universe: view of the universe having the Earth as the center
heliocentric universe: having the sun as the center
ellipse: a regular oval shape
Coriolis effect: an apparent deflection of a moving mass in a rotating system.
Why do we have day and night?
The Earth is a spinning rock abundant with life hurtling around in the cosmos held in orbit by our star, the Sun.

Why do we have day and night?
Why do we have day and night?
As we fly around in space, our planet turns, or rotates on its axis. It does this continually night and day as we revolve around the Sun.
Q: What was an axis again?
Because of this rotation about our axis our planet experiences night and day.
Why do we have day and night?
Here on Earth, we didn't always know that the Earth rotates.

In your groups, discuss how you can tell that the Earth moves without using space photos or videos as your evidence. Be ready to write up on the board.
Group Discuss
Copernican model of the universe
vs
Ptolematic model of the universe
Theory of heliocentric universe
Theory of geocentric universe
Sun is at the center
planets revolve around the sun
Earth is at the center
everything revolves around the Earth
Heliocentric Universe
sun centered
What's the evidence?
Evidence #1 Jean-Bernard-Leo Foucault decided to make a very long pendulum that, if the Earth infact was rotating would cause it to move rocking back and forth.
- Foucault pendulum
1. The Earth is rotating
1. The Earth is rotating
1. The Earth is rotating
- Foucault pendulum
- Coriolis effect
2. Observations of the heavens (especially: Galilean moons of Jupiter)
The Seasons PREtest
1. What are the four seasons?
2. When do they begin?
3. Why do they change?
4. T or F: When it is summer in the Southern Hemisphere it is summer in the Northern Hemisphere.
5. T or F We have winter because the Earth is further from the sun during that season.
6. T or F We have winter because the Earth's tilt makes the Northern Hemisphere farther away and therefore colder.
Our planet's orbit is shaped like an
ellipse.
But it is just a slight ellipse.
1. What are the four seasons?
Summer, Fall, Winter, Spring
2. When do they begin?
late June, Late September, Late December, Late March
3. Why do they change?
The intensity of the sun's light is different during the year.
4. FALSE: When it is summer in the Southern Hemisphere it is summer in the Northern Hemisphere.
5. FALSE We have winter because the Earth is further from the sun during that season.
6. FALSE We have winter because the Earth's tilt makes the Northern Hemisphere farther away and therefore colder.
TILTED
The Earth is tilted at
23.5 degrees
from the orbital plane of the Sun.
This slight difference in distance isn't enough to cause our seasons.
closest: 147 million km
farthest: 152 million km
The entire Earth is farthest to the sun during the month of
July.
The Season Reasons
So here is the deal.
Its all about the tilt of our planet.
The sun's rays are most intense when they are shining down on our planet at a
90 degree angle.

Board and Light
DEMO
Globe Demo
The Three Reasons for the Seasons
Three things matter:
1. the
tilt of the Earth
. Without it we wouldn't have any seasons at all
2. The
intensity of the Sun's light
. This is what give more sun to some parts of the world and less to others
3. The
orbit of our planet around the Sun
.
Fill out the seasons table in your notes.
Important Terms for Today:
equinox: either of two times of the year when the sun crosses the plane of the Earth's equator and day and night are of equal length

solstice: either of the two times of the year when the sun is at its greatest distance from the celestial equator
The Moon
Where did it come from?
How did it get there?
The Giant Impact Hypothesis
Let's jot down those notes so we can remember!
The name for the leading hypothesis that explains how the moon formed is the
Giant Impact Hypothesis.
Still got more notes... be patient.
This hypothesis explains:
1. Earth's tilt (23.5 degrees)
2. why the Moon is moving away from us a little bit each year
3. why the Moon and Earth have such
similar rock types.
Craters...
What's up with them?
Examine the moon. What do you see? Compare the near side with the far side.
Important Term

maria: a dark region of considerable extent on the surface of the moon (mainly basalt rock)
Why are there so many craters on the far side compared to the near side and on Earth?
What do you think?
What was the difference between the far side and the near side? (hint: look at your important terms)
MISCONCEPTIONS
Common
Let's get things straight!
The moon rotates on its axis
once
each time it revolves or orbits around the Earth.
MISCONCEPTIONS
Common
Let's get things straight!
When the moon is only partial lighted the dark portion we see is produced by the moon's shadow.
IT IS NOT THE SHADOW OF THE EARTH FALLING ON THE MOON.
ii. The moon
DOES NOT
change its shape.
iii. The moon is always a
SPHERE
MISCONCEPTIONS
Common
Let's get things straight!
Graphic Organizer
Phases of the Moon
Important Terms
waning: decrease in phase
waxing: increase in phase
eclipse: one celestial body obscures another
tide: the periodic rise and fall of the sea level under the gravitational pull of the moon and sun
SIZE
The moon is only
1/6
of the mass of the Earth. If the moon were resting against our planet it would stretch from
Utah to New York.
How close is the moon?
Eclipses
Eclipses
There are two types of eclipses:
Lunar (moon) eclipse
Solar (sun) eclipse
Documentary video clip of the Moon formation.
Lunar Eclipse
a lunar eclipse occurs when the Earth's shadow blocks the sun's light from reaching the moon.
When this occurs, anyone on the planet that can see the moon at this time can see the eclipse. (only happens at night)
Lunar Eclipse
Why don't we have a lunar eclipse each time we have a full moon?
Two basic reasons:
1. The moon is on an orbit that is titled at about 5 degrees from the solar plane.
Lunar Eclipse
Why don't we have a lunar eclipse each time we have a full moon?
Two basic reasons:
1. The moon's orbit is tilted at 5 degrees
2. The moon is really far away.
The Tides
high tide
low tide
Solar Eclipses
solar eclipses occur when the moon blocks the light (or eclipses) the sun.

Because the moon is much smaller that the sun it has a smaller shadow.

Not everyone on the planet can see the eclipse.
Tides
Tides occur because of the
gravitational force
between the:
Sun
Earth
Moon
high tide
low tide
is when the water on the shore is at its highest levels.
is when the water on the shore is at its lowest levels.
- Foucault pendulum
- Coriolis effect
Full transcript