Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Untitled Prezi

No description
by

Howard Yoon

on 30 September 2013

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Untitled Prezi

Single Mothers
Education
Income
Family
(Children)
Gender
Ethnicity
Health Problems
Mental Problems
Depression, anxiety, stress
Malnutrition
Poor Health of Their Children
Psychiatric disease, Suicide and suicide attempt, injury, addiction, less school engagement, violence
Meet Ms. Sheer
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/06/03/single-moms-health-proble_n_871180.html

"That first year, I lost like 80 pounds. The stress just took hold of my body.“

-pressures of raising the newborn son +
-divorce debt
-feeling that she'd been cast out of her social network

Next Generation
Account for significant portion of the population of Canada and it is growing
Single mothers have about 1.9 million children,
and the average number of children they have per family is greater than
single-father families and couple families.

40% of single mother families have 2 children or more.

This is an important public health issue because...

Source: 2006 Statistics Canada, Catalogue no. 91-213-X.

16% of all families
Population in thousands
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2007 Annual Social and Economic Supplement

Around 50% of single mother families live under $35,000 per year. Every year, their income is increasing, but slowly.

Source: 1997 Canadian Medical Association,
Single mothers in Ontario: sociodemographic, physical and mental health characteristics
Ellen Lipman, David Offord, Machael Boyle

Stable
Family

Single
Mother

Divorced, Widowed,
Separated
Teen Pregnancy
Life Stressors,
Violence
Source:
Galarneau (2005). Earnings of temporary versus permanent employees”. Perspectives on Labour and Income, Spring 2005 17(1). Ottawa: Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 75-001-XPE.
Townson, Hayes (2007). Women and the Employment Insurance Program: The Gender Impact of Current Rules on Eligibility and Earnings Replacement. Ottawa: Status of Women in Canada.
Mason(2003). Listening to lone mothers: Paid work, family life, and childcare in Canada. Journal of Children & Poverty
National Council of Welfare (2008). Welfare incomes, 2006 and 2007. National Council of Welfare Reports
2006
Aboriginal: 31% are single mothers
Non-Aboriginal: 13% are single mothers
Sources:
Statistics Canada (2006). Aboriginal Peoples in Canada in 2006: Inuit, Metis and First Nations, 2006 Census: First Nations people.
Statistics Canada (2006). Education and income of lone parents. Perspectives on Labour and Income: Spring 2006, 18(1). Ottawa: Statistics Canada
Erika Lauren Williston
Howard Yoon
Jeff Phan
Woo Jin Park
Yang Kevin Wu
Yi Ming Shen
Poor Housing
Low Education
Insecure Jobs
Poor Neighborhood,
Poor Physical Environment
Social Isolation
Poor Health
Malnutrition
1. Sexual Education
Sexual Education
Interventions
2. Collaborative Care
Collaborative
Care

Stable
Family

Single
Mother

Divorce, Widowed,
Separated
Teen Pregnancy
Life Stressors,
Violence
Poor Housing
Low Education
Insecure Jobs
Poor Neighborhood,
Poor Physical Environment
Social Isolation
Poor Health
Malnutrition
Stable
Family

Single
Mother

Divorce, Widowed,
Separated
Teen Pregnancy
Life Stressors,
Violence
Poor Housing
Low Education
Insecure Jobs
Poor Neighborhood,
Poor Physical Environment
Social Isolation
Poor Health
Malnutrition
Stable
Family

Single
Mother

Divorce, Widowed,
Separated
Teen Pregnancy
Life Stressors,
Violence
Poor Housing
Low Education
Insecure Jobs
Poor Neighborhood,
Poor Physical Environment
Social Isolation
Poor Health
Malnutrition
Childcare Subsidies
3. Childcare Subsidies
Further Considerations...
But! There are some Success Stories
1.
2.
Implementation of collaborative care:
More patients met criteria for recovery.
Patients claimed to be much more satisfied than the usual care.

Implementation of teleconferencing:
Had better outcomes than on-site collaborative care.



For example:
Conclusion
Acknowledgments, Data Sources, Key references
Recommendations
Problems:
Health disparities in single mothers
Mental Disorders, Malnutrition, Children's Health etc.

Proposed Interventions:
Sexual Education, Collaborative Care, Childcare Subsidies

Considerations:
Cultural, ethical and contextual

Proposed Solutions:
Promote awareness
Promote government action
Policy generation
Intersectoral action
Collaborative care
Questions?
1. 2006 Statistics Canada, Catalogue no. 91-213-X.
2. Canadian Journal of Public Health, January- Februiary 2004, Commentary: Single-mother families in Canada, Enza Gucciardi, Nalan Celasun, Donna E. Stewart
3. 1997 Canadian Medical Association, Single mothers in Ontario: sociodemographic, physical and mental health characteristics Ellen Lipman, David Offord, Machael Boyle
4. Statistics Canada, 2011 Census of Population and Statistics Canada catalogue no. 98-312-XCB.
5. U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2007 Annual Social and Economic Supplement
6. Lefebvre P, Merrigan P, Verstraete M. Dynamic Labour Supply Effects of Childcare Subsidies: Evidence from a Canadian Natural Experiment on Universal Child Care," Labour Economics. 2009. 16(5): 490-502
7. Haeck C, Lefebvre P, Merrigan P. Quebec’s universal childcare: the long term impacts on parental labour supply and child development. 2012.
8. Blau D, Tekin E. The determinants and consequences of child care subsidies for single mothers in the USA. Journal of Population Economics. 2007. 20, 4: 719-741.
9. Tekin E. Single Mothers Working At Night: Standard Work And Child Care Subsidies. Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International. 2007. 45(2): 233-250, 04.
10. Scott EK, London AS, Hurst A. Instability in patchworks of child care when moving from welfare to work. Journal of Marriage and the Family. 2005. 67(2): 370-386.
11. Forry N. The Impact of Child Care Subsidies on Low-Income Single Parents: An Examination of Child Care Expenditures and Family Finances. Journal of Family and Economic Issues. 2009. 30(1): 43-54.
12. Canada Child tax benefit. (2013) Canada Revenue Agency. http://www.cra-arc.gc.ca/cctb/
13. The Régie des rentes du Québec and child assistance. 2013. The Régie des rentes du Québec. http://www.rrq.gouv.qc.ca/en/programmes/soutien_enfants/Pages/soutien_enfants.aspx
14. Sanchez G, Miguel R. 2002. Targeting child poverty in Canada. Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive). Paper 234.
15.Oringanje C, Meremikwu MM, Eko H, Esu E, Meremikwu A, Ehiri JE. Interventions for preventing unintended pregnancies among adolescents. The Cochrane library. 2009 Oct 7
16.Council on Communications and Media. American Academy of Pediatrics. Policy statement--sexuality, contraception, and the media. Pediatrics. 2010;126(3):576.
Sexual Education
Conservative Parents
Religious beliefs against contraception

Collaborative Care and Teleconferencing
Risk of miscommunication
Language barrier

Childcare Subsidy/ Daycare
Language and cultural disparities


Contextual
Cultural
Ethical
Sally: Single mother of three children.
- Fantastic family child care provider
- Dream again of getting back into the workforce
-vehicle to get back into the workforce


Martha: Single mother of one child.
"It was a system that changed my life because I got to understand again, whoo, I can back into the work force."


Source:
Child Care Subsidies and Child Development: How Four
Mothers Story their Experiences of their Child(ren)’s Development
by
Sophia Philion-Hunter
B.S.W. The University of British Columbia, 2009
Canada
Who are single mothers?
Source:
Sauve R. Connections: Tracking the links
between jobs and family. Contemporary Family
Trends. Ottawa: The Vanier Institute of the
Family. 2002.
Employment Rate
2000:
67%
Full-time Employment rate
High proportion of young single mothers.
High proportion of unintended pregnancies.

Sexual education as primary intervention.

Several mechanisms have been proposed:
- Free contraceptives
- Proper contraceptive usage
- Comprehensive education (versus abstinence only education)

PICO: Does the implication of education to young women decrease the rate of single mothers?

Sexual education
Sexual education: an effective intervention?
Result:
- Positive response, lowering of unplanned pregnancies in all researches

Common characteristics of successful programs include:
1. Specific and straightforward goals (ex:
unplanned pregnancy prevention, condom usage)
2. Specific pinpointing of problems (ex: lack of cooperation, abstinence)
3. Specific methods and strategies to solving the problems(ex: positive attitude, perception of risk, self-efficacy)

Researches presented unclear randomization.

Researches may be victims of self-report bias.

Impact of social and psychological problems not discussed in sexual education.

Solutions:

Effect of media and technology in teenagers.

Finding other ways of educating other than at school.

Emphasis on education/intervention on males as well.
Sexual education: Limitations
Childcare Subsidy and Day Care
What is available?
Federal:
Canada Child Benefit
Quebec:
7$/day daycare
Child Assistance Plan

PICO: Do childcare subsidies and/or affordable daycare improve the health of single mothers and their children?


The Régie des rentes du Québec and child assistance. 2013. The Régie des rentes du Québec. http://www.rrq.gouv.qc.ca/en/programmes/soutien_enfants/Pages/soutien_enfants.aspx
However…

The evidence shows…
Data from several studies was extrapolated following implementation in the US and Canada:

Increased involvement of women in the labor force
Promote/strengthen the economy
Increase family financial stability
Decreased degree of poverty


Limited number of spaces/unequal distribution of spaces
Poor quality of day care
Insufficient information distribution

Study Limitations
Old data
Small sample size
Inappropriate population selection


Intervention Limitations
Situation
Depression (unipolar) among single mothers
Remote Areas

Interventions
Collaborative care including teleconferencing

PICO: Does collaborative care, including teleconferencing, yield better outcomes for depressed single mothers than the usual care?


Result
Tele-Therapy:
Relationship/Interaction
On site record

The Studies:
Short periods for RCT
Use different methods (e.g.: CBT instead of Behavioral Activation)


Limitations
Both single mothers appreciated the child care subsidy for being able to go back to the work force.
Study
(And the Use of Technology)
Source: 2003 Lancet,
Mortality, severe morbidity, and injury in children living with
Single parents in Sweden: a population-based study
Gunilla Ringbäck Weitoft, Bengt Haglund, and Måns Rosén

Proximal Causes of Health Problems
in Single Mothers
Lack of Physical Activity
Stress
Biological/Genetics
Lack of Sleep
Hormonal Fluctuation
Younger Age
Living Alone
Parental Psychiatric History
Childhood Trauma
www.radio-canada.ca
www.dailymail.co.uk
All families
Husband-wife families
Lone-parent families
Local
Regional
Provincial
Front-line
Health Workers
Government
Source: Statistics Canada, 2011 Cencus of Population and Statistics Canada catalogue no. 98-312-XCB
Media
17. Campbell-Grossman CK, Hudson DB, Keating-Lefler R, Heusinkvelt S., New mothers network: the provision of social support to single, low-income,
African American mothers via e-mail messages. Journal of Family Nursing [Internet]. 2009 May [cited 2013 Sept 28]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19211545
18. Fortney JC, Pyne JM, Mouden SB, Mittal D, Hudson TJ, Schroeder GW, Williams DK, Bynum CA, Mattox R, Rost KM., Practice-based versus telemedicine-based collaborative care for depression in rural federally qualified health centers: a pragmatic randomized comparative effectiveness trial. Am J Psychiatry. 2013 Apr 1 [Cited 2013 Sept 28]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23429924
19. Richards DA, Hill JJ, Gask L, Lovell K, Chew-Graham C, Bower P, Cape J, Pilling S, Araya R, Kessler D, Bland JM, Green C, Gilbody S, Lewis G, Manning C, Hughes-Morley A, Barkham M., Clinical effectiveness of collaborative care for depression in UK primary care (CADET): cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2013 Aug 19 [Cited 2013 Sept 28[. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23959152
20. Gilbody S, Bower P, Fletcher J, Richards D, Sutton AJ., Collaborative care for depression: a cumulative meta-analysis and review of longer-term outcomes. Arch Intern Med. 2006 Nov 27 [Cited 2013 Sept 28]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17130383

Full transcript