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UNIT 3 - Chapter 12

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Stephen Ortiz

on 6 September 2016

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Transcript of UNIT 3 - Chapter 12

Chapter 12
Patterns of Inheritance
Essential Terms in Genetics
Basic Patterns of Inheritance
Mendel's Laws of Inheritance
12.1 Essential Terms
- Genes
- Diploid
- Alleles
- Genotype/Phenotype
- Homo/Heterozygous
- Dominant/Recessive Alleles
- Mutations
Extensions of Mendel's Laws
Gregory Mendel

Gene - a stretch of DNA
that governs one or more
genetic traits.
Genetic Trait - any inherited characteristic of an organism that can be observed or detected in some manner.
Phenotype - the display of a particular version of a genetic trait in a specific individual.
Diploid - somatic cells; 2 copies of each type of chromosome.
Homologous Pair
Haploid - gametes; 1 set of each
type of chromosome.
Genotype directs Phenotype
Allele - Different versions of a given gene.
Genotype - the allelic makeup of that individual with respect to a specific genetic trait.
Homozygous vs Heterozygous
Dominant vs Recessive
Mutation - any change in the DNA that makes up a gene.
Genetic Cross - controlled mating experiment performed to examine how a particular trait may be inherited.
P Generation
F1 Generation
F2 Generation
Mendel's Concepts
Alternative versions of genes cause variation in inherited traits.
Offspring inherit one copy of a gene from each parent.
An allele is dominant if it has exclusive control over the phenotype of an individual when paired with a different allele.
Two copies (alleles) of a gene segregate during meiosis and end up in different gametes.
Gametes fuse without regard to the alleles they carry.
The Law of Segregation and the Law of Independent Assortment
Law of Segregation - 2 copies of a gene are separated during meiosis and end up in different gametes.
F1 Generation - Monohybrids - heterozygotes (Pp)
Law of Independent Assortment
Page 287
Incomplete Dominance (page 289)
Codominance (page 291) - the effect of both alleles is equally visible in the phenotype of the heterozygote.
Pleiotropy - a gene that can influence a variety of different traits.
Epistasis - when the phenotypic effect of the alleles of one gene depends on the presence of certain alleles for another, independently inherited gene.
Environmental Effects
Polygenic - traits that are governed by the action of more than one gene.
12.2 Basic Patterns of Inheritance
- Mendel's Experiments
12.3 Mendel's Laws of Inheritance
- Law of Segregation
- Law of Independent Assortment
12.4 Extensions of Mendel's Laws
- Incomplete Dominance
- Codominance
- Pleiotropy
- Epistasis
- Environment
- Polygenic
Full transcript