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Ottoman Empire in WWI
Transcript of Ottoman Empire in WWI
Group of well-educated Turkish military officers
Rising nationalism & opposition
Reaction of the people?
BEFORE THE WAR
Sultan: "a Muslim sovereign"
Heir to a powerful royal family
Ruled almost entire north coast of Africa, west to Egypt, Holy Lands (Israel & Palestine)
Ottoman Navy ruled Mediterranean (with traders)
Governed from Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, Turkey)
Struggled to maintain control of the vast empire
Sultan's position -> FIGUREHEAD = power seized by the 'Young Turks'
Emee Dy & Mattia Abad
Ottoman Empire in WWI
BEFORE THE WAR
Nearly 600 years -> non-Muslims suffered (systematic discrimination + outright persecution)
Decade before 1914: empire encountered political upheavals
Russia vs Ottomans: ___> 12 wars
Lost substantial amount of territory
Russia -> WWI -> caused for Enver Pasha (Turkish leader) to join the Central Powers
1870s: owed more than 200 million pounds to European bank
Goal: Revitalize empire
-> ending official discrimination against non-Muslims
-> encouraging education + freedom of women
-> increase jurisdiction of secular law courts > Islamic ones
Strategy: Introducing modernist reforms
Replaced Byzantine empire (control over the Eastern Mediterranean)
one of the world's largest imperial powers
consisted of mostly TURKS (also included Arabs, Kurds, Greeks, Armenians)
Islamic Caliphate (Sultan) -> also contained Christians, Jews
Surpassed all of Europe (wealth + power) - ruling the Middle East, northern Africa (most), eastern Europe
Breaking down (with the pressure of war)
Joined the Central Powers versus the Allies in WWI
Adding to the
1914: Lagged behind (economically, technologically, militia)
Reunification of ethnic 'Turkic' populations in Caucasus & Central Asia
Concept of explicitly elevating Turkish identity -> not common or in line with the truth of multinational empires
= ethnic/religious tensions between Ottoman subjects
Constant 'pan-Turkic' proponents (Enver Pasha, Minister for War) -> opportunities to engage in conflict
Failed reform due to emerging Turkish nationalism
infiltration of western ideas
call for reform
THE FALL OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE
Located at the junction of Europe, Africa, Asia
One of the great trade centers in the world
Bursa City: Center of silk trade
Imported goods from all over the world
With a large empire, such as theirs, most trade ran through their territory
Silks, tea, and porcelain was brought by caravan and ship from the East
Furs, grain, and amber came from the West
Constantinople was a center for trade and commerce
Mercantile tax assured that the state was provided steady income (taxation of trade)
The Ottomans owned most of the trade routes that connected the East from the West
Mehmed: encouraged merchants to move, then forcibly resettled them from captured territories
Reached its height under Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-66)
1. "The Ottoman Empire." Background -. Web. 5 Aug. 2015. <http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/war/ottoman-empire/background>.
2. "The Ottoman Empire before World War I." World War I. 25 June 2012. Web. 5 Aug. 2015. <http://alphahistory.com/worldwar1/ottoman-empire/>.
3. BBC News. BBC. Web. 9 Aug. 2015. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/history/ottomanempire_1.shtml>
4. "The Economy in the Ottoman Empire." The Economy in the Ottoman Empire. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Aug. 2015. <http://ottomanempire.info/economy.htm>.
5. Shaw, Stanford J. "Ottoman Empire | Facts, History, & Map." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 09 Aug. 2015. <http://www.britannica.com/place/Ottoman-Empire>.
6. "HISTORY OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE." HISTORY OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE. Web. 11 Aug. 2015. <http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ab37>.
7. "Renaissance." For Kids: Ottoman Empire. Web. 11 Aug. 2015. <http://www.ducksters.com/history/renaissance/ottoman_empire.php>.
"Ottoman." Ottoman. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Aug. 2015. <http://www.theottomans.org/english/art_culture/science.asp>.
Recipe for success
1. Highly centralized
2. Power was under one person
3. State-run education system
4. Religion played a big role (Sultan="protector of Islam")
5. State-run judicial system
6. Firm/Ruthless with local leaders
7. Merit was the basis for promotion to positions of power
8. Created alliances (political & racial groups)
9. Highly pragmatic
10. Private power & wealth were controlled
11. Very strong military (slave-based, gunpowder experts)
12. United by Islamic practices
Declined after defeat (Battle of Lepanto 1571) -> almost lost their entire navy
Then & Now
Suleiman the Magnificent (1520 -66) & Grandson Selim II (1566 - 74)
A Multicultural Society
The Ottoman Empire was very expansive and held with it many nations under its control
The ruling powers within the empire were accepting of many cultures
A large trade industry allowed multiple interactions between many cultures and nations
As long as there was trade, many merchants were allowed to mingle inside the city centers
Ottoman architecture was a mix of Western European and Islamic styles
Mosques, mausoleums, and madrasahs were commonly built for Holy Men or Spiritual Brotherhoods (similar to fraternities)
Christian art was very influential in Ottoman structures with many buildings adorning stained glass and such
A staple of Ottoman architecture is the domed roof/ceiling
Science and Technology
Science was seen as an importance to the empire
Sultan Mehmed II himself was interested in learning about the world around him
Mehmed II ordered many philosophers, both Islamic and Greek, to focus their studies on certain metaphysical and scientific problems
Many books were published on philosophy, mathematics, and many others were translated into Arabic so that locals may read them
An Empire of Art
A wide range of traditional art and handicrafts
Common sought after items by traders are rugs, ceramics, miniatures, embroidery, and marble
Istanbul and Constantinople were the capitols of Ottoman fine art and was where it was showcased to merchants and travelers of the empire and beyond
Tulip Period - time of peace when the arts flourished (tulips: symbol of perfection/beauty)
Suleiman the Magnificent = earthly leader. "The Lawgiver"
The Sultan & his many wives lived in the Tokapi Palace, Istanbul. He would sleep in a different room every night due to the fear of getting assasinated.