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Global Depression and WWII WHAP
Transcript of Global Depression and WWII WHAP
Life after WWI
Optimism and Anxiety
Mexican Revolution Redux
START OF WWII
INVASION OF POLAND SEPTEMBER, 1939
Hitler invaded Poland, which went in direct defiance of earlier non-aggression pact.
At this point, all diplomacy had failed, so BR and FR declared war on GY.
SPOILER ALERT- IT DIDN'T WORK.
Get it? Clever, right?
Europe faced massive econ probs after WWI, but society still optimistic (the Anna of Arendalle of the world)
Art: Cubist Movement led by Picasso.
Science: Einstein challenged traditional styles in science (Theory of Relativity)
Shopping: (can I get a WOO?!) Mass consumption a powerful force. Hey Ladies! You became IMPORTANT consumers.
Even though we have all this optimism (especially in America), there was some anxiety over impending econ problems.
Pablo Picasso, 1911
British Empire, US, & Japan
Canada, Australia, and New Zealand won independence ad became equal members in the British Commonwealth of Nations under Statute of Westminster
Japan continued to industrialize on a rapid and grand scale, but there was also strain b/t its military and gov't. (more on that later)
Political Shifts and Beginnings
1919, Benito Mussolini founded Fascism. Basic tenents:
Corporate State: State controls every facet of life. Led to the creation of the word totalitarian. No individuality- you exist for the state.
New nations in E. Euro created in climate of intense nationalism. This led to rivalries and the global great depression (GGD) paved way for authoritarian gov'ts.
Syndicalism: new econ system (like Socialism) in which industry controlled by unions.
Mexican Revolution: During the war, LA countries lost important markets and became more independent. Other causes were Nationalism, class conflict, and art (Diego Rivera and Jose Orozco).
Start: Porfirio Diaz rigs election and imprisons Francisco Madero. N. Rev led by Pancho Villa, S. Rev led by Emiliano Zapata. Diaz replaced by Madero, who was then replaced by Zapata.
Victoriano Huerta began a dictatorship, and finally Alberto Obregon became President in 1921.
Post WWI: People angry that RU/Lenin snubbed at PPC. Lenin then LOST the Parliamentary elections. So he created a new Congress of Soviets, imposing Comm control.
Led to Civil War: Red Army v. White Army. Reds win.
Lenin imposed New Economic Policy of 1921 to stabalize economy and created USSR. The Supreme Soviet made up of Comm Reps.
Post-Lenin= STALIN. He emphasized nationalism and collectivization. Five Year Plans to industrialize nation brought many ppl work, but no consumer goods and terrible working conditions. Plus, FAMINE.
Qing Empire fell in 1912.
Sun Yat-sen initially elected Pres of the new Republic (song almost finished), but ceded power to Yuan Shikai who wanted to be emperor. This along with JP aggression during WWI led to its collapse and the May Fourth Movement: anti-Imperalism, anti-Traditional movement led to rise of Nationalist and Communist Parties.
Nationalists led by Chiang Kai-shek, Communists led by Mao Zedong. Led to civil war for power. Initial defeats led Mao to flee to countryside (Long March), and then Kai-shek became distracted by JP aggression a la WWII.
Stuctural weakness in industrial economies.
A price collapse occurred as a result of cheap agricultural improts and rising European production. Recovery in the 1920s was partially based on US Loans.
Production in Africa and LA also outstripped demand, causing economic hardship.
Reaction: Focused on internal production protection, raising tariffs. Worsened situation.
US Stock Collapse in 1929 caused bank failures in US and Euro.
LIFE DURING DEPRESSION
Shantytowns, disenchantment with earlier optimism of Roaring 20s.
Parliamentary systems were challenged everywhere.
France: new political parties: socialism, communism emerged.
Sweden: became a welfare state.
US: Elected Franklin Roosevelt who instituted New Deal to bring jobs and regulate banking. It didn't end Depression, but helped restore faith in the gov't, sidestepping Communist/Socialist overthrow.
German Nationalist Party (Nazi) was a Fascist party, and made Fascism an international force.
Hitler promised a return to traditional values, ridding GY of Jewish influence, and solving its economic problems (hyper inflation).
Created a totalitarian state in GY and enforced it using the gestapo to control all facets of life.
Targeting Jews to initially have them emigrate, by 1940 he aimed to exterminate all Jews in the German Empire (Holocaust).
The Jew is the instigator of the war
European Responses to Hitler
Hitler's success led to fascist movements in Hungary, Romania, Austria, and SPAIN!
Mussolini invaded Ethiopia in 1935, and LON took no action, so Italy eventually took the nation.
In Spain, Francisco Franco, backed by Fascists, started a Civil War against opposing a Republic form. 1936-39, Franco won.
Depression led to JP military controlling the gov't n 1932.
Went to war with China in 1937 and led to JP control of Manchuria, KOR, and Taiwan. Control turned to brutal oppression, especially in KOR.
Military takeover led to easement of GGD, and began to industrialize at a rapid pace.
USSR mostly immune to GGD. Stalin continued to industrialize and began collectivization of farm land.
Anti-Collectivization peasants were exiled or killed. This along with famine (some gov't imposed) led to 12 million deaths during these Five Year Plans.
Industrially, the five year plans were very successful.
Culture: Art was managed under Socialist Realism to celebrate socialism. The Secret Police purged pol'l opponents. The Politburo executive committee okay'ed any and all of Stalin's plans.
Hitler's rise scared RU b/c he hated Slavic people, so they signed a Non Aggression Pact in order to buy some time to arm itself for impending war.
1933: Hitler rebuilds GY's military and withdrew from LON. LON did nothing.
1935: took back the Rhineland. LON did nothing
1936: supported Franco in SP Civil War. BR and FR did nothing
1937: Made alliance w/ JP.
1938: Annexed Austria.
1938: Munich Conference given Sudetenland in return for ceasing expansion.
1939: Hitler invaded rest of Czechoslovakia.
BR and FR sign non-agression pact w/ GR, TU, RO, and PO.
Nazi-Soviet Pact: Hitler won't invade Soviets. Divided E. Euro hypothetically.
GIVING SMALL CONCESSIONS TO WARD OFF FURTHER AGGRESSION.
First Sino-JP, and RU-JP War + WWI= world power.
GGD --> expansion to pull country out.
1931: Invaded Manchuria, withdrew from LON, and formed early anti-Comintern treaty w/ GY.
1937: Invaded mainland CH
Rape of Nanjing: 250,000 CH slaughtered.
Comfort women: women kidnapped from CH and KOR to be used as prostitutes for JP army.
War in Europe
POL flat= good for tanks.
w/i 10 days, Stalin and Hitler split POL.
By 1940, Hitler invaded BEL and HOLL and then went to FR.
w/i a year, controlled most of continental Euro
Battle of Britain
After Hitler's success in FR, thought BR would crumble.
New Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, took a hard line to GY- wouldn't surrender.
This led to BoB- air raid attacks on London and other major cities.
New tech: RADAR! helped BR survive
Italy and Germany
IT attacked GR, but couldn't win w/o German help in 1941.
FYI Greece is in the Balkans... which GY had promised to SU in their Nazi-Soviet Pact.... sooo
GY invades SU, moving troops and supplies to the new Eastern front, easing pressure on BR (the only allied power still fighting) (Operation Barbarossa)
US Enters WWII
Cause of US entering
JP invaded Indochina (Vietnam). This threatened US trade there, so we imposed sanctions on JP.
US didn't lift sanctions so JP attacked US at Pearl Harbor Dec. 7, 1941.
US declares war on JP, JP and GY declare war on US.
US in the War in Europe/Africa
Invaded N. Africa first, then IT. Waited on massive land invasion of France.
US secretly worked on Manhattan Project (thanks to Einstein who then later had ragrets*) to develop an atomic bomb.
D-Day: Invasion of Normandy w/ BR and CA on June 6, 1944 and liberated FR.
War in Pacific
Hard fighting in Pacific, JP never surrendered and utilized kamikaze attacks.
Once US caught up production and tech, employed island-hopping campaign.
Started to close in on JP, but JP would not surrender.
Roosevelt died, leaving Truman to drop the atomic bombs on JP.
Why? Faster, less casualties, show SU we were strong.
Dropped first bomb on Hiroshima Aug. 6: killed more than 100,000.
Didn't surrender w/i limit, so dropped second bomb on Nagasaki. JP surrendered.
90,000–146,000 people in Hiroshima and 39,000–80,000 in Nagasaki; roughly half of the deaths in each city occurred on the first day.
CONSEQUENCES OF WAR
1. Holocaust revealed: Hitler's Final Solution blamed Jews for all society's problems, thus systematically killing 6 million.
There were also 6 million Poles, Slavs, Gypsies, homosexuals, disabled people, and elderly killed.
Public sympathy for Jews swelled, which will help lead to the creation of Israel. (more later)
2. Peace Settlement: US and SU superpowers (hegemonies). War crimes tribunals established to prosecute Naxi officials (Nuremberg). JP demilitarized and established a democracy under US watch- embraced it and capitalism.
Became economically stable w/i 10 years.
3. Marshall Plan: made billions of dollars available for western Euro to use to rebuild.
avoid another depression
keep them from turning to SU/Communism
Beginning of Cold War at end of WWII w/ Truman and Stalin
4. Decline of colonialism: created a negative attitude about empire, inspired native populations to rise up against oppressors.
5. Women now work and go to college
A COLD WAR?
Toward the end of WWII, ideological diffs b/t US and SU become apparent.Yalta Conference: Roosevelt could handle Stalin in a friendly-ish manner. Potsdam Conference: Truman takes a hard line w/ Stalin. Says he doesn't trust him, won't share atomic bomb.
Distrust, won't share military secrets.
Both want to be hegemony after WWII and spread its ideologies (Democracy vs. Communism)
Post WWII Alliances: NATO vs Warsaw Pact.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization: pro Democracy and Capitalism
Warsaw Pact: SU and puppet gov'ts (including Poland)
UN: to mediate, and if necessary to intervene in, international disputes b/t nations.
Now expanding into monitoring human rights.
World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and the World Trade Organization were formed to create an integrated global economy.
Allies believed nations connected economically were less likely to invade one another
UN, IMF, WTO... OMG?
US continued to industrialize (Henry Ford and the assembly line comes in here).
US also started to export its culture with Hollywood films and Jazz music. However, also withdrew from foreign affairs.