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Transcript of unsc
-Representatives of 50 nations met in San Francisco April-June 1945 to complete the Charter of the United Nations.
-In addition to the General Assembly of all member states and a Security Council of 5 permanent and 6 non-permanent members, the Charter provided for an 18-member Economic and Social Council, an International Court of Justice, a Trusteeship Council to oversee certain colonial territories, and a Secretariat under a Secretary General.
-The Roosevelt administration avoided Woodrow Wilson's mistakes in selling the League of Nations to the Senate. It instead, sought bipartisan support and in September 1943 the Republican Party endorsed U.S. participation in a postwar international organization
-Both houses of Congress followed by overwhelmingly endorsing participation.
-The Senate approved the UN Charter on July 28, 1945, by a vote of 89 to 2.
-The United Nations came into existence on October 24, 1945, after 29 nations had ratified the Charter.
Expansion of Seats
Redesigning the UNSC: Struggle to find consensus within regional blocks
India, Brazil, Germany and Japan
Proposal in 2005, draft resolution, which calls for enlarging the council from 15 members to 25.
six new permanent seats (including 2 african countries) without veto power and four non-permanent seats.
4 additional non- permanent seats.
Consist of the 2nd and 3rd biggest contributors to the UN funding (Germany and Japan)
Core members- Italy, Mexico, Pakistan, South Korea, Spain, Argentina, Canada,
Uniting for consensus “Coffee club” in opposition to the G4
Proposal in 2005- rejected
Revised proposal in 2009
12 additional non-permanent seats
non- permanent seats distributed by region
introduction of semi- permanent seats
Uniting for Consensus
Reform of membership- “In Larger Freedom” -plan A and plan B
Plan A - six new permanent members, plus three new non permanent members
Plan B - eight new seats in a new class of members, serving for four years, subject to renewal, plus one non permanent seat.
Asia’s Bitter ‘Love’ Triangle: China, India and Japan
Improve the demographic representation of the Council with 2 permanent seats for Africa
Distribute power more accurately according to those nations who contribute the most financially to the organization
Most regional rivals in opposition
Can a country contribute permanently to the UNSC effectively?
Disparity between the member countries
Fear of a coalition of power
does not advocate for any new permanent member seats
more diverse representation with regional seats
Better representation of Africa's interests.
Nearly every country agrees that the UN needs to be reformed, but method and extent of reform varies
Two important areas: veto power (more sensitive), permanent member expansion
Tensions within regions
Change of UN Charter and ratification (2/3)
States unsure of how the new Council would function
Could a bold move be the answer?
Blocking economic powerhouses from full active participation in global peace and security
Middle economies having a greater say on the UNSC
Resolution 1991 A(XVIII)
General Assembly passes resolution A/RES/48/26 and sets up “Working Group”
General Assembly president, Razali Ismael, puts forward ambitious three-stage reform plan
Appointment of Secretary General, Kofi Annan’s High Level Panel on Threats, Challenges, and Change
Panel releases report, A More Secure World: Our Shared Responsibility, proposing two plans A and B for enlargement.
Coffee Group adopts document, United for Consensus
Kofi Annan issues follow-up report to High-Level Panel’s report; In larger freedom; towards development, security and human rights for all
Key Dates of Security Council Reform Efforts
A look at the veto
Veto use up to August 2012:
Anachronistic, undemocratic, and reduces effectivity of Council (already condemned by 185 states in the 1990s)
Current alternative to a Council deadlock : “Uniting for Peace”
Has been used 12 times since November 1950
Weakness : decision not legally binding; GA can only issue recommendations
A more tangible reform still needed
Veto Reform : The Responsibility Not to Veto (RN2V)
How does it work?
Strategy : “moderate reform”
Initially part of the “Responsibility to Protect” (R2P) principle (World Summit 2005)
States should refrain from using veto in cases of genocides and mass atrocities
The RN2V: Key Players
Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius
The Genocide Prevention Task Force -> led by former Ministers of the US
The European Parliament
The S5 “Working Group” bloc
Gained support of 35 states in 2009
Reform is hard because veto is a sensitive issue
Abandoned in 2005 due to pressure from the P5
Dropped again in 2012
The movement is still alive -> new opportunities
Underrepresentation of Latin America, Africa and Asia
Who are the contestants for permanent seats?
Can a fight over representation on the council serve to resurrect bitter rivalries?