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Unity, Time and Motion

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Jessica Davis

on 23 November 2015

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Transcript of Unity, Time and Motion

Design Principles
Unity, Time and Motion

“An appreciation of unity is a simple and immediate sense of connections resonating throughout a composition.”
“Without some elements of variety an image is lifeless and dull and becomes uninteresting.”

Example: Large blocks of identical apartments or houses are boring to look at and often boring to live in. They quickly become aesthetically unpleasing.
“Without some aspect of unity, an image or design becomes chaotic and quickly unreadable. Without elements of variety, an image is lifeless and dull and becomes uninteresting.”
Chaos and Control
The ‘rules’ in design are not rigid on the use of unity and variety. There are countless ways to achieve them – all that is required is experimentation.
Emphasis on Unity
The grid is an intrinsic part of designing web sites for the Internet.
However, this is not necessarily a guarantee for a successful layout.
Grid Design on the Internet
The Grid
Was used by The Masters
Start by drawing a series of lines to create a format or template.

“A point to remember is that, with a great deal of variety of elements, a simple layout idea can give needed unity.”
Unity with Variety
Use a line, an edge, or a direction to carry the viewer’s eye from one form to another.
About Continuation:
1. Proximity – Make separate elements look as if they belong together by putting the elements close together.
Simplest way to achieve unity

Example: We use proximity to create words. If the letters of a word are far apart it becomes very difficult to read.
Ways to Achieve Unity:
Gestalt – the theory of visual psychology, or the study of perception.
The viewer tends to group objects that are close to one another into a larger unit.
The viewer will also tend to group like objects.
Negative (or empty) space also seems to be clearly organized.
Visual Perception:
Intellectual unity – elements have common theme; they have unity of idea.

Example: a scrapbook page. It is unified by theme but not by visual composition.
Intellectual Unity vs. Visual Unity
“The whole must be predominant over the parts. You must first see the whole pattern before you notice the individual elements.”
Visual Unity
Chapter 2: Unity
Design Principles
Loretta Lux. Sasha and Ruby. 2005. Ilfochrome print.
Example: Unity through Repetition
Designing multiple units as a whole.
Creating several designs that somehow must relate to each other.
(Serial design is also related to the concept of ‘branding’)

Example: Books, catalogs, magazines, and pamphlets designed for the same company should exhibit ‘serial design’.
Serial Design
A series of vertical and horizontal lines on a page. (Think of graph paper.)
You can use a grid to create similarity between pages
You can control spacing within units
The Grid
Joe Miller’s Design Co. Logo design for space 47. 47 East William Street, San José, California 95112.
Our brain looks for similar elements
We group objects of similar shape together
And try to make them into something else.
How We See Unity:

The white diagonal is as obvious as the two groups of rectangles.
Negative Space
Hoefler & Frere-Jones. Sentinel Font.
Example: Visual Unity
Visual unity – elements have a similarity to the eye. Similar shape, size, etc…
The designer creates unity for the viewer.
They create a pattern of similar shapes, lines, and colors that help organize the idea or ‘Intellectual unity’ into visual unity.
The viewer is instinctively looking for visual organization and patterns.
Visual Unity
Alex Katz. Black Jacket. 1972. Oil on aluminum (cutout),
5’ 25/8” ’ 1/4” (159 © Alex Katz/Licensed by VAGA, New York, New York
“Unity of design is planned and controlled by an artist.”
Composition – the organization of elements in a design.
(Composition is another term for design)
Where Does Unity Come From?
Wayne Thiebaud. Paint Cans. 1990. Lithograph, hand-worked proof, 75.7 58.8 cm. DeYoung Museum (gift of the Thiebaud Family, 1995.99.12). Art ゥ Wayne Thiebaud/Licensed by VAGA, New York, New York.
Unity – When elements in an image look as though they belong together.
Unity is synonymous with Harmony.
Unity can exist with either representational imagery or abstract forms.
Representational – Images that look like something that actually exists.
Introduction: Harmony
Signs create a visual clutter along old Route 66 in Kingman, Arizona.
A conflicting jumble of graphic images causes overload and leaves us confused by chaos.
Your eyes cannot focus on any one thing.
George Herms. The Librarian. 1960. Assemblage: wood box, papers, brass bell, books, painted stool, 4ユ 9モ 5ユ 3モ 1ユ 9モ (1.4 m 1.6 m 53 cm). Norton Simon Museum, Pasadena (gift of Molly Barnes, 1969).
An assembly of found objects composed as a piece of sculpture.
Visual Unity is at work in the strongly formed cross shape and limited range of colors.
Assemblage – Unity with Variety
Eva Zeisel. Classic Century: oil pourer, sauce boat, salt and pepper. Ceramic. Produced by Royal Stafford, England.
Elements that can be repeated and varied to create unity:
Varied Repetition Adds Interest:
Awa Tsireh. Animal Designs. c. 1917ミ1920. Watercolor on paper sheet, 1ユ 81/16モ 2ユ 21/8モ (50.9 66.2 cm). Smithsonian American Art Museum Washington, D.C., Corbin-Henderson Collection (gift of Alice H. Rossin).
The image is organized in a grid, but each design is unique.
Unity with Variety – The Grid
Balthus (Balthasar Klossowski de Rola). The Living Room. 1941ミ1943. Oil on canvas, 3ユ 81/2モ 4ユ 93/4モ. The Minneapolis Institute of Arts.
3. Continuation - Literally means “something continues”
The design carries the eye of the viewer through and around the picture.
The main figure’s limbs or forms can intersect with an object or they can point at it, which leads the viewer’s eye to and through the composition.
Ways to Achieve Unity…
Sophie Taeuber-Arp. Composition with Circles Shaped by Curves. 1935.
Gouache on paper, 1' 1 ⁄ ” x 10 ⁄ " (35 x 27 cm). Kunstmuseum Bern
(gift of Mrs. Marguerite Arp-Hagenbach).
2. Repetition - Repeat design elements to create harmony.
Ways to Achieve Unity…
Karl Blossfeldt. Pumpkin Tendrils. Works of Karl Blossfeldt by Karl
Blossfeldt Archive. Ann and Jürgen Wilde, eds., Karl Blossfeldt: Working
Collages (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2001), p. 54.
Collage - An artwork created by assembling and gluing a variety of materials onto a two-dimensional surface.
Exploring Visual Unity
Elizabeth Murray. Painter’s Progress. Spring 1981. Oil on canvas, 19 panels, 9' 8” x 7' 9". Acquired through the Bernhill Fund and gift of Agnes Gund (271.1983.a-s) Location: The Museum of Modern Art, New York, New York.
Use variety in:

Life is not always orderly or rational.
Emphasis on Variety
2003 BMW Z4 Roadster. Courtesy BMW of North America, LLC.
Continuation can be subtle or deliberate.
Continuation can be used in three-dimensional design.
The lines of the shapes can lead to other shapes.
In a car the sweep of the window can lead to the curve of the hood.
In sculpture the curve of a hand or arm can lead to the curve of a hip.
Continuation continued…
Damon Winter, personal photograph from Iceland, Communication Arts, May/June 2005.
Unity is created by repetition of similar shapes, lines, patterns and colors.
When you do this it creates forms that are repetitive, further enhancing the feel of unity.
An image that is monochromatic is one way to create a sense of unity.
Creating Unity
Jean Léone Gérome. The Duel after the Masquerade. 1857–1859. Oil on canvas, 1' 3 ⁄ ” x 1' 10 ⁄16" (39.1 x 56.3 cm).
Pablo Picasso. Harlequin. Paris, late 1915. Oil on canvas, 6' ⁄ ” x 3' 5 ⁄ " (183.5 ° x 105.1 cm). Acquired through the Lillie P. Bliss Bequest. © 2009 Estate of Pablo Picasso / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. 76.1950.
The elements of the composition can be simple or complex.

Unity through use of Analogous colors - the use of a palette or a selection of colors that are adjacent (next to) to each other on the color wheel.
Unity at Work: Figurative And Nonobjective
Chapter 11: Illusion of Motion
Design Principles
Figure Repeated
Figure Cropped
Blurred Outlines and Fast Shapes
Multiple Images
Lines of Force
Grouping Multiple Images
Optical Movement
Ways to Suggest Motion
John Baldessari. Six Colorful Gags (Male). 1991. Photogravure with color aquatint and spit bite aquatint, 3ユ 11モ 4ユ 6モ. Edition 25. Crown Point Press, San Francisco.
You can collect and combine a series of images placed together to create movement.
You can also do this with similar subjects from different sources.
6. Grouping Multiple Images
Thomas Eakins. Pole Vaulter: Multiple Exposure of George Reynolds. c. 1884. Photograph, 9.5 x 12.3 cm. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York(gift of Charles Bregler, 1941; 41.142.11).
Multiple Image - When you see one figure in an overlapping sequence of poses, with a slight change from pose to pose that suggests motion.
4. Multiple Image
Elliot Barnathan. Study in Motion. Digital photograph.
Details and hard outlines are lost in fast movement.

Used in all art forms. Examples:
Blurred Edges (photography)
Sketchy line (drawing)
Fast shapes (graphic design)
Long sweeping lines (industrial design)
3. Blurred Outlines and Fast Shapes
Lola Moreno and Ramon Rosanas. Coca Cola Storyboard.

One of the oldest uses
Uses a repeated figure.
Widely used in art of all cultures.
Used to form a “storyboard” that conveys a narrative over time.
1. Figure Repeated
Baseball Photo
Seeing and Feeling Impending Action
Implication of movement present in art is caused by our memory and experiences.
Kinesthetic Empathy - a process where we tend to recreate unconsciously in our own bodies the actions we observe.
If you’re watching a basketball game you may also stretch, jump or shoot for the hoop.
Anticipated Movement - This feeling can be enhanced by implied lines and gestures as if action is about to be completed.
Anticipated Motion
Harold Edgerton. Making Applesauce at MIT (.30 Bullet Piercing an Apple). 1964. Photograph. © Harold & Ester Edgerton Foundation, 2007, courtesy of Palm Press, Inc.
“Photography has made visible images that are otherwise invisible to us due to a motion too rapid for the eye to perceive.”
The idea of a unique, singular or “decisive” moment.
Depicting the Transient
Niklaus Troxler. Underkarl. 2004. Jazz concert poster.
Afterimage – Occurs when you stare at certain images and a predicted ‘afterimage’ appears.
Eye Movement – Your eye follows movement such as undulating lines and spaces.
7. Optical Movement
Marcel Duchamp. Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2. 1912. Oil on canvas, 4' 10" x 2' 11" (1.47 x 0.89 m). Philadelphia Museum of Art (Louise and Walter Arensberg Collection).
Lines of Force - Many curved lines are used to show the pathway of movement.
5. Lines of Force
Larry Erickson and Billy F. Gibbons (designers). CadZZilla. 1989. Custom automobile. Design patent DES. 320, 959.
Use of long sweeping motion lines.
Example: Blurred Outlines and Fast Shapes
Taliek Brown of the University of Connecticut. December 10, 2002. Photograph.
Implies motion
The figure moves so fast that they escape the picture frame.
How they are framed enhances motion.
Comics also use both figure repetition and figure cropping to create motion.
2. Figure Cropped
Johannes Vermeer. The Kitchen Maid. c. 1658. Oil on canvas, 45.5 x 41 cm. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.
Stillness and Arrested Action.
Relative Stillness:
“Almost every aspect of life involves constant change.”
“Motion is an important consideration in art.”
Design Principles
Instructor: Jess Cross Davis
Final Project
DUE: On exam day!
Sketches due Thursday, November 29th

Define the following five terms from Design Basics: Unity, Continuity, Form, Subject and Content. Read chapter 11 on Illusion of Motion and the Unity chapter.
For this project you need to come up with a panoramic fable illustration in the style of an illustrator. Sketch thumbnail ideas in four, 2 by 4.5 inch boxes and re-draw your favorite idea in a 4 by 9 inch box with more detail and color. You need 5 in total, four thumbnails and a solid sketch ready to transfer to your board. Print out the fairytale or fable you want to illustrate.

In chapter 11, Illusion of Motion, there are various ways you can show motion and time in a single image, they are: repeating a figure, cropping a figure, with blurred outlines and with the use of a multiple image. Be aware of these terms when attempting to create your final image.

Final Project - Panoramic Story Illustration
With this project you will be illustrating a fairy tale or fable on a panoramic picture plane. You will work in the style of an artist or illustrator that you admire or of your favorite book. This project should be on 10 by 20 inch illustration board with a 1 inch border. This will leave a 8 by 18 inch rectangle to illustrate in. Your final image should tell the story that you have chosen and not just a single scene from it. This may mean using figure repetition and multiple images. You may want to work left to right.

There are many things to to consider when trying to emulate the style of another artist. In your sketch book you should record their color scheme, materials and mediums they use as well as the type of line they incorporate within their illustrations and how they compose their picture plane. You may need to look them up on the Internet for information on their artwork and illustrations. You may also want to look in the children’s section of the Library for a book that they illustrated. For a greater challenge use a more contemporary illustrator or artist, think posters, comic books or fine art.

Do not copy characters or other elements directly from their work! (Example: there should not be a “Cat in the Hat” in your illustration of “Puss in Boots”)
You will need to address most of the design elements and principles in this project. When you have completed the piece you need to make two lists on the back, one of the elements used in the work and the other of the design principles used (listed as chapter titles). You will also need to list the illustrator and book or artwork that inspired your piece.
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