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Hematology and Immunology

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on 9 August 2013

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Transcript of Hematology and Immunology

Hematology & Immunology
Basic Knowledge
Hematology: The study of the blood
hemat/o- -logy
means blood the study of

Immunology: The study of the immune response
immun/o- -logy
immune response the study of

Lymphatic Vessels
These vessels are similar to blood vessels but are also different.
Lymphatic capillaries have openings in their walls that allow organisms and other things to enter.
These vessels also have valves that keep flow in one way.


Also known as red blood cells the human body produces millions of these cells every second.
These cells contain hemoglobin . A molecule that binds to both oxygen and carbon dioxide and carries oxygen from the lungs to the whole body and vice versa.
In case of an accident where major blood loss is a problem the kidneys secrete erythropoietin which speeds of the process of production of erythrocytes.
Known as white blood cells this includes 5 types of cells.
Each white blood cell can be identifiable by how many granules (sacs containing digestive enzymes) it has.
White blood cells with many granules are called granulocytes any with or none are called agranulocyte.
Known as a platelet these cells are engaged when it comes to the blood cloting process.
In just second these cells try to form clumps to stop the loss of blood.
This kind of cell originally start within the red marrow and becomes very large. When it starts breaking apart it becomes a thrombocyte. When all of its cytoplasm breaks of the nucleus is recycled
The purpose of the blood is to transport oxygen nutrients and waste products of metabolism.
The purpose of the lymphatic system is to defend the body against foreign things.
Lymphatic System
Thymus: also part of the endocrine system. This organ becomes smaller, less active and replaced by fat during adulthood. Its function is to receive lymphoblasts and turn them to T cells.
Spleen: Located in the left upper quadrant its function is to remove old red blood cells from the blood. It's other function is to store whole blood. During times of injury it contracts and release this blood into body.
Lymphoid Organs
Tonsils: Traps bacteria and viruses.
Adenoids(ADD-eh-noids): Traps bacteria and viruses when child breaths in. As children grow the adenoids shrink and eventually disappear for most.
Peyer's patches
Appendix: To many the appendix has no real function.
Lymphoid Tissues
Consist Of:
Lymphatic Vessels
Lymph Nodes
Lymph Fluid
Lymphoid Organs
Lymphoid Tissue
Filters the Lymph.(Lymphatic fluid that through the system)
There are some organisms in the lymph node called the macrophages that destroy any dangerous organism or cells that have entered.
Lymph nodes are usually grouped together in areas that have a high risk of being attacked
Blood is 55% percent plasma.
Elements that are in the blood are within the plasma.
Plasma also contains nutrients from foods that are digested, substances the body produces and waste products of cellular metabolism.
Plasma is 92% water.
Blood Components
Metabolism: reactions that happen in organisms to maintain life
"The human blood circles the human body in about 20 seconds."
"15 million blood cells are produced and destroyed every second."
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