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WORLD HERITAGE SITES OF AUSTRALIA

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Transcript of WORLD HERITAGE SITES OF AUSTRALIA

WORLD HERITAGE SITES OF AUSTRALIA
Attractions
There are many significant features of Kakadu, including 5,000 sites of Aboriginal rock art which form one of the longest records of history of any group of people in the world (PA, 2013).

Waterfalls, billabongs and escarpments all add character to the natural landscape with biological diversity being of great significance to the area
(PA, 2013).
History
Kakadu is included on the World Heritage List as having both cultural and natural significance and was first inscribed on the list in 1981 (DE, 2011).

The park now covers close to 20,000 square kilometres and has been home to the Bininj/Mungguy Aboriginal people for more than 50,000 years (DE, 2011).
Flora and Fauna
Fraser Island
History
Fraser Island was registered on the World Heritage List in 1992 because of its diverse ecosystems and remarkable natural phenomena (Department of National Parks, Recreation, Sport and Racing [DNPRSR], 2014). It is the largest island in the world spanning 1,840 square kilometers (DE, 2014).

Fraser Island was originally named K’gari, meaning “Paradise”, by the indigenous Butchulla people who have occupied the island for more than 5000 years (DNPRSR, 2014).

Lord Howe Island
Uluru
Attractions
Climate
Flora and Fauna
Australia is home to a significant collection of World Heritage Listed sites, which are described as having universal value transcending that of our national interests (Department of the Environment [DE], 2014). Here we explore our favourite five.

The information has been sourced from online sites using a checklist approach which as suggested by Metzger (2007) is a reliable way of critiquing information and pursuing credibility. Authority, currency, relevance, objectivity and presentation have all been carefully evaluated before judging the sources as trustworthy. Australian government websites have been used extensively as we considered these the best choice for the construction of an informative and accurate presentation.

Enjoy the journey of exploring a handful of Australia’s most stunning and world significant destinations. We begin in the top end of Australia's rugged Northern Territory.


Australia is a land like no other. Captivating beaches, pristine coastal islands, diverse wetlands, marine wilderness and awe inspiring rock formations shape this amazing continent. Abundant and distinctive flora and fauna add to its uniqueness and make it one of the most significant and valued destinations in the world. The inscription of Kakadu, Fraser Island, Ningaloo, Lord Howe Island and Uluru to the World Heritage List acknowledges their importance and ensures ongoing management and conservation.

'Our heritage is a legacy from our past, a living, integral part of life today, and the stories and places we pass on to future generations' (Department of the Environment, 2014).


Ningaloo

This World Heritage listed site is home to rare and endemic species of flora and fauna (DE, 2011).

It hosts an enormous 77 species of mammal, 271 species of bird, 132 different species of reptile, 27 species of frog, 314 species of fish, 1,600 plant species and 10,000 insect species (DE, 2011).
Fraser Island has a subtropical climate which makes visiting the island enjoyable all year round. Temperatures range from 14 – 25˚C in winter to 23 – 30˚C in summer (DNPRSR, 2014).

January to March are the wettest months in which rainfall averages 160mm per month. Storms are most common in spring and summer (DNPRSR, 2014).
Fraser Island is a place of exceptional beauty, with its long white beaches and coloured sand cliffs. It is the only place in the world where tall rainforests grow on sand dunes at elevations of over 200 metres (DE, 2014).

The Island is also home to Boomanjin, the world’s largest perched lake (DNPRSR, 2014).
Magnificent wildflowers are displayed in the wallum heathlands in spring and summer. The heathlands are also home to the endangered ground parrot. Birds are abundant on the island with over 350 species recorded (DE, 2014).

It is believed that Fraser Island is host to the most pure strain of dingo population remaining in eastern Australia (DNPRSR, 2014).



Sensenmann (2006),
Lake Mckenzie Beach, Fraser Island
Cooke (2007),
Fraser Island – Rain Forest
Schoch (2005),
Anbangbang Billabong, Kakadu National Park
Saltwater Crocodile by Andy Tyler in List of marine reptiles (2012)
Kee (2010),
Brolga (Grus rubicund) Northern Territory
The island group was added to the World Heritage list in 1982, due to its unique diversity of flora, fauna and marine life.

The volcanic island was first discovered in 1788 by the British (DE, 2013).

In 1830 a small camp of settlers became permanent residents. There is no evidence of prior human settlement (UNESCO, 2014).

History
Climate
Lord Howe Island’s climate is mild all year-round. Cool sea breezes and warm sea currents provide a perpetual spring climate. Maximum temperatures stay around 25˚C throughout summer decreasing to an average of 19˚C in winter (LHIT, n.d.).

The average annual rainfall of 1499mm is distrubuted evenly throughout the year (BOM,2014).
Attractions
The island group is full of natural attractions. Lord Howe Island has an impressive landsape with the volcanic mountains of Mount Gower (875 m) and Mount Lidgbird (777 m) soaring over the sea.

The marine area is the southern-most coral reef in the world. (DE, 2014).

Flora and Fauna
Due to limited human intervention, Lord Howe Island group is home to some of the most unique flora and fauna in the world.

It is a breeding ground for birdlife and home to two endangered wildlife species, the woodhen, a flightless bird, and the phasmid, the largest stick insect in the world (UNESCO, 2014).


History
Climate
Attractions
Flora and Fauna
Uluru is one of the world's great natural wonders with its unique land formation. It has deep cultural and spiritual significance to the Anangu traditional landowners. Archaeological findings suggest that humans settled in the area more than 10,000 years ago (Uluru, 2014).

In 1950 Uluru was declared a national park and in 1985 the Australian Government returned ownership of Uluru back to the Anangu (Uluru, 2014).

Uluru has a hot desert climate and the temperature range throughout the seasons is extreme. Summer temperatures can climb to a very hot 45˚C and as low as 0˚C in winter (Uluru, 2014).

Rainfall is approximately 12 inches per year and the best time to visit Uluru is from April to October when the temperatures are not reaching the hot summer peaks (Uluru, 2014).

Climbing Uluru is a popular attraction for tourists but the Anangu people request that visitors not climb due to cultural reasons (PA, 2014).

Reflections and the sun’s rays filter the colour of Uluru making it appear to change from red, orange, brown and grey. Uluru can be enjoyed from many different viewing areas and guided walks (PA, 2014).

There are more than 400 species of plant and over 40 species of native animals found at Uluru (PA, 2014).

The plants are vital as they provide food, medicine and fuel to the traditional owners. Many of the animals are ancestral creatures and appear in dreamtime stories and rock paintings (PA, 2014).

Climate
There is no wet season. Moderate rainfall is spread evenly throughout the year. The climate is generally dry and warm. On a typical summer day the temperatures range between 30-40˚C. Winter is at 25˚C daytime. The warm currents running through the coastline, keep water temperatures 18-28˚C. (Exmouth Visitor Centre, n.d.).
Attractions
Flora and Fauna
Ningaloo Reef is home to a number of endangered species. These include whale sharks, turtles and dolphins. The reef hosts over 200 species of coral and hundreds of some of the world’s most colourful fish and molluscs (DE, 2014). Many species of marine birds are also found here.
References
Anderson A.J. (2003),
Australian Archaeolog
y (57). 98-102

Bureau of Meteorology (2014),
Monthly climate

statistics
[online], Retrieved 22 April 2014, from http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/cw_200839.shtml.

Australian Bureau of Meteorology (2014),
Lord Howe

Island annual rainfall
[online], Retrieved April 22, 2014 from
http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/cw_200839.shtml

Australian Government Department of the Environment (2008),
Fraser Island Brochure
[online], Retrieved 20 April 2014, from
http://www.environment.gov.au/system/files/pages/9fc24778-6eb9-442a-ba4a-5d08793f2c40/files/fraser-brochure.pdf

Austrlian Government Department of the Environment (2011),
Kakadu National Park overview – World Heritage places
[online], Retrieved April 12, 2014, from
http://www.environment.gov.au/node/19775

Australian Governmendt Department of the Environment (2013),
Ningaloo Commonwealth Marine Reserve – activities
[online], Retrieved April 24, 2014, from
http://www.environment.gov.au/topics/marine/marine-reserves/north-west/ningaloo-activities

Australian Government Department of the Environment (2013),
World heritage places – Lord Howe Island Group
[online], Retrieved 20 April, 2014, from
http://www.environment.gov.au/node/19781

Australian Government Department of the Environment (2014),
World Heritage places – the Ningaloo Coast
[online], Retrieved April 24, 2014, from
http://www.environment.gov.au/node/19787

Australian Government Department of the Environment (2008),
World Heritage places – Fraser Island
[online], Retrieved April 20, 2014 from
http://www.environment.gov.au/node/19752

Australian Government Department of the Environment (2008),
World Heritage places – Fraser Island
[online], Retrieved April 20, 2014 from
http://www.environment.gov.au/node/19752

Australian Government Parks Australia (2014),
Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park
[online], Retrieved April 28, 2014, from
http://www.parksaustralia.gov.au/uluru/index.html



Candin (2014),
Dingo on the beach
Ningaloo Reef was originally named Ningaloo Marine Park in 1987 (Exmouth Visitor Centre, n.d). It is located beside the town of Exmouth.

Due to a large number of marine species in and around the reef, it was given World Heritage title by the UN in June 2011. It was then renamed as Ningaloo Commonwealth Marine Reserve ( DE, 2014).

The name ‘Ningaloo’ came from the local Aboriginal people, and stands for 'point of high land jutting out to sea' (Exmouth Visitor Centre, n.d.).


History
Woman Going Places (2013)
, Ningaloo Reef Australia for Women Travellers
Australia's Coral Coast (n.d.)
, Swimming with whale sharks at Ningaloo Reef

Some of the biggest attractions of this area include it's limestone and coral reef landscapes. This creates perfect opportunities for filming and photography, scuba diving and snorkelling, fishing and spearfishing. However, swimming with whale sharks tops the list (Exmouth Visitor Centre, n.d.).
Kakadu
Kakadu is a place of dramatic tropical seasonal change separated by wet and dry. Traditional custodians however, recognize six distinct seasons within these extremes (Parks Australia [PA], 2013).

Temperatures range from 17 - 37˚C and during the wet an incredible deluge of 1.5 meters of rain can fall across the park (PA, 2013).
Climate
Nyman (n. d.),
Wonderful sunset at Ubirr Rock
Kouiskas (2008),
Uluru with couds
Leopold (2008),
Uluru from a helicopter
Australia, Landscape, Scenic, Sky, Clouds, Forest (2013)
Riley (2011),
Aboriginal artwork – Uluru (Ayres Rock)
Watson (2013),
Thorny Devil
Tyler (2012),
Saltwater crocodile


Destinations (2013),
Ningaloo Reef Western Australia

Next we travel to captivating beaches off Queensland’s central coast
Now explore a marine wilderness in Western Australian waters
Enjoy the picturesque beauty of remote islands off the coast of New South Wales
Lastly we journey to the heart of this amazing continent in the red centre
Tatters (2009),
Myrsine

Australian Travel and Tourism Network (n. d.),
Ningaloo

Reef
[image], Tourism NSW [online], Retrieved April 22, 2014, from
https://www.google.com.au/search?q=ningaloo+reef+pictures&es_sm=93&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=piVbU6L1NIKVkwWyx4HICw&ved=0CDgQsAQ&biw=1366&bih=667#facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=-qq
1iTBt3jWxM%253A%3B1Jg55IwZmV35OM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.australiascoralcoast.com%252Fsfimages%252Fmust-do%252Fningaloo-reef

Australia’s Coral Coast (n.d.), Swimming with whale sharks at Ningaloo Reef [image], Tourism WA [online], Retrieved April 25, 2014, from
https://www.google.com.au/search?q=ningaloo+reef+pictures&es_sm=93&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=piVbU6L1NIKVkwWyx4HICw&ved=0CDgQsAQ&biw=1366&bih=667#facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=-qq
1iTBt3jWxM%253A%3B1Jg55IwZmV35OM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.australiascoralcoast.com%252Fsfimages%252Fmust-do%252Fningaloo-reef

Candin, P. (n.d.), Dingo on the beach [image], Australian Government Department of the Environment [online], Retrieved April 20, 2014, from
http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/heritage/photodb/imagesearch.pl?placeid=105087;proc=detail;start_rownum=18;last_rownum=18;no_rows=86;mode=f

Cooke, J. (2009), Muttonwood [image], Flickr [online], Retrieved 20 April, 2014, from
https://www.google.com.au/search?as_st=y&tbm=isch&hl=en&as_q=fraser+island&as_epq=&as_oq=&as_eq=&cr=&as_sitesearch=&safe=images&tbs=sur:fmc#facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=SUe8llX6s2ASSM%253A%3Bcfn6jTeAwgx_-M%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.johncooke.info%252Fpics%252Falbum%252Falbums%252FFraser%252Fnormal_IMG_1059.JPG%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.johncooke.info%252Fpics%252Falbum%252Fdisplayimage.php%253Fpid%253D2848%3B600%3B450

Cooke, J. (2007), Fraser Island [image], Coppermine Galleries [online], Retrieved April 20, 2014, from
https://www.google.com.au/search?as_st=y&tbm=isch&hl=en&as_q=fraser+island&as_epq=&as_oq=&as_eq=&cr=&as_sitesearch=&safe=images&tbs=sur:fmc#facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=SUe8llX6s2ASSM%253A%3Bcfn6jTeAwgx_-M%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.johncooke.info%252Fpics%252Falbum%252Falbums%252FFraser%252Fnormal_IMG_1059.JPG%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.johncooke.info%252Fpics%252Falbum%252Fdisplayimage.php%253Fpid%253D2848%3B600%3B450



Destinations (2013), Ningaloo Reef, whale shark [image], stuff.co.nz [Online], Retrieved April 25, 2014, from
https://www.google.com.au/search?q=ningaloo+reef+pictures&es_sm=93&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=piVbU6L1NIKVkwWyx4HICw&ved=0CDgQsAQ&biw=1366&bih=667#facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=-qq1iTBt3jWxM%253A%3B1Jg55IwZmV35OM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.australiascoralcoast.com%252Fsfimages%252Fmust-do%252Fningaloo-reef

Fergus, G. (2002), Lord Howe Woodhen [image], Lord Howe Island, Australia [online] Retrieved May 4, 2014 from
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/
File:Lord_Howe_Woodhen.jpg

Hudson, T. (2012) Flying Sooty Tern [image], Self-publication [online], Retrieved May 4, 2014, from
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lord_Howe_Island_-_flying_Sooty_Tern_2.JPG

Kee, L. (2010), Brolga (Grus rubicund) [image], Northern Territory [online], Retrieved April 17, 2014, from
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Brolga_%28Grus_rubicunda%29_-_Flickr_-_Lip_Kee.jpg

Kouiskas (2008), Uluru with cloud [image], Self-publication [online], Retrieve April 28, 2014, from
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Uluru,_with_clouds.jpg

Leopold C. (2008), Uluru from a helicopter [image], Wikimedia Commons [online], Retrieved April 28, 2014, from
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/79/Uluru_from_Helicopter_2008.jpg

Nyman R. (n.d.), Wonderful sunset at Ubirr Rock [image], Flickr [online], Retrieved April 30, 2014, from
http://www.flickr.com/photos/robertnyman/189608660/

Riely, R. (2011). Aboriginal Art Work - Uluru (Ayres Rock). Retrieved April 26, 2014, from https://www.flickr.com/photos/rileyroxx/6357305011/

Schertzer, F. (2006), Lord Howe Island from the north [image], Self-publication [online], Retrieved April 24, 2014 from
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lord_Howe_Island_from_North.jpg


World Heritage Sites of Australia


Themes Kakadu Fraser Island Ningaloo Lord Howe Island Grp. Uluru

History Julieanne Rachel Maria Kristy Mel

Climate Julieanne Rachel Maria Kristy Mel

Attractions Julieanne Rachel Maria Kristy Mel

Flora and Fauna Julieanne Rachel Maria Kristy Mel

(2014),
Ningaloo Reef Entry

Hudson (2012),
Flying sooty tern, Lord Howe Island
Fergus (2002),
Lord Howe woodhen
Schertzer (2006),
Balls Pyramid
Schertzer, F. (2006), Ball’s Pyramid [image], Self-publication [online], Retrieved May 5, 2014, from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ball%27s_Pyramid_North.jpg

Schoch T. (2005) Anbangbang billabong [image], Kakadu National Park [online], Retrieved April 17, 2014, from
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Anbangbang_Billabong_Australia.jpg

Taylor, N. (2014). ‘Gently in Time’, Melbourne, VIC: Self produced.

Tyler A. (2012), Saltwater crocodile [image], Flickr [online], Retrieved April 17, 2014, from
http://www.fotopedia.com/items/flickr-7240683550

Watson, C. (2013). Thorny Devil
[online]
, Retrieved April 26, 2014, from http://www.comebirdwatching.blogspot.com/?
view=classic

Wikipedia (2004), Lake McKenzie Beach [image], Wikipedia.com [online], Retrieved April 20, 2014, from
https://www.google.com.au/search?as_st=y&tbm=isch&hl=en&as_q=fraser+island&as_epq=&as_oq=&as_eq=&cr=&as_sitesearch=&safe=images&tbs=sur:fmc#as_st=y&hl=en&q=fraser+island+climate+pictures&tbm=isch&tbs=sur:fmc&facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=1w9lqPkT5xitrM%253A%3BWqvI0RkGeEryNM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fupload.wikimedia.org%252Fwikipedia%252Fcommons%252F5%252F5f%252FFraser_Island_a05_lake_mckenzie.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fen.wikipedia.org%252Fwiki%252FFraser_Island%3B2240%3B1680

Women Going Places (2013), Ningaloo Reef Australia for women travellers [image], [online], Retrieved April 25, 2014, from
https://www.google.com.au/search?q=ningaloo+reef+pictures&es_sm=93&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=piVbU6L1NIKVkwWyx4HICw&ved=0CDgQsAQ&biw=1366&bih=667#facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=-qq1iTBt3jWxM%253A%3B1Jg55IwZmV35OM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.australiascoralcoast.com%252Fsfimages%252Fmust-do%252Fningaloo-reef


Schertzer (2006), Lord Howe Island from the north
Exmouth Visitor Centre (n.d.),
Ningaloo Reef
, Exmouth Visitor Centre [online], Retrieved April 25, 2014, from http://www.exmouthwa.com.au/pages/ningaloo-reef/

Queensland Government Department of National Parks, Recreation, Sport and Racing (2014),
About Fraser

Island dingoes
[online], Retrieved April 19, 2014 from
http://www.nprsr.qld.gov.au/parks/fraser/fraser-island-dingoes.html

Queensland Government Department of National Parks, Recreation, Sport and Racing (2014),
Fraser Island, great sandy National Park, nature, culture and history
[online], Retrieved April 19, 2014 from
http://www.nprsr.qld.gov.au/parks/fraser/culture.html

Queensland Government Department of National Parks, Recreation, Sport and Racing (2014),
Fraser Island, great

sandy National Park, about Fraser Island
[online], Retrieved April 19, 2014 from
http://www.nprsr.qld.gov.au/parks/fraser/about.html#climate_and_weather

LHI Visitor Centre (n.d.),
Travel Essentials – when to go
, Lord Howe Island Travel Association [online], Retrieved April 22, 2014 from
http://www.lordhoweisland.info/travel-essentials/when-to-go/

Marmion, B. (2011),
Whale shark tourism on the rise,
Government of Western Australia [online], Retrieved April 12, 2014, from
http://www.dec.wa.gov.au/search.html?searchword=ningaloo&searchphrase=all

Parks Australia (2013)
, The people and place/ Kakadu National Park/Parks Australia
[online], Retrieved April 12, 2014, from
http://www.parksaustralia.goc.au/kakadu

Uluru Travel (2014),
Uluru History
[online], Retrieved April 28, 2014, from
http://www.uluru.com/UluruHistory.html

Travel Australia (2014),
Lord Howe Island Group
, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Education [online], Retrieved April 22, 2014, from
http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/186


Australian Travel and Tourism Network (n. d.)
, Ningaloo Reef
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