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oxytocin and trust

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perry vargas

on 27 January 2013

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Transcript of oxytocin and trust

An increase in oxytocin was found in those returning money, not in those giving it.
A positive correlation was found in participants who were sent money and the change in their oxytocin level according to whether they rested or received a massage.
Researchers determined only one massage session wasn’t enough to raise oxytocin levels.
Determined oxytocin’s effect on behavior was to increase generosity and cooperation in addition to trust. Tutorial step 3 (continued) Detailed account of study
In 2008, several researchers including Morhenn, who conducted a study to find out how oxytocin associated with trust. 96 participants we taken, both male and female. The subjects were split into 3 groups(see fig 1.) and half gave money with the knowledge that it would be tripled and the participant they gave it to may decide to share the profit.
Oxytocin levels were taken from blood tests, before and after the trust game.
Women were more likely to show increased levels of oxytocin Tutorial step 3 Introduction:

Hormones are chemical messengers and part of the endocrine system. They are transmitted by the blood stream, but usually can’t cross the blood-brain barrier. Oxytocin is a hormone released by the pituitary gland that regulates prosocial effects. Tutorial step 3 External validity is good, results can be generalized to general population.
No real show of bias visible, and no opportunity for bias. Trust defined as money given, very observable transaction, very physical.
Internal validity is also good as oxytocin is directly related to trust, so the variable being studied was correctly studied. Evaluation (continued) No change in oxytocin levels for investors, with or without massage.

Study indicates touch associated with being trusted raised oxytocin levels. Results (continued) Massage and trust group only sent a little more than rest only group. ($6.30)
Massage group had no significant change in oxytocin level after massage.
Amount given back by massage group was significantly different ($6.85) Results (Figure 1) 3 groups made: massage and trust
Massage and trust
Rest and trust
Massage only

Trust game to decide how much $ to give, money would be tripled and other participant would share profit

Blood samples taken before and after to measure oxytocin levels Operational definition Independent variable: Touch defined through massages

Dependant variable: oxytocin levels and trust Procedure (continued) Type: correlational and survey

Subjects: 96 students who took 15 min Swedish massages.( known to increase oxytocin levels)

3 groups: massage and trust, rest and trust, massage only Procedure Researchers : Vera B. Morhenn, Jang Woo Park, Elizabeth Piper, Paul J. Zak

Year: 2008

Aim: what is the relationship between oxytocin and trust?
Monetary sacrifice among strangers is mediated by endogenous oxytocin release after physical contact
(Morhenn et al.) - Helps activate neuroplasticity
- Boosts arousal
- Improves social skills
- Sparks generosity
- Maternal behavior Physiological Process - Promotes attachment
- Eases stress
- Helps solidify emotional memories
(tie emotion to memory)
- Boosts sexual arousal
- Reduces drug cravings
- Induces sleep Neurological Process -Oxytocin: A hormone released from pituitary gland, that is associated with trust and love.
-Trust: Firm belief in reliability of something or someone else. Defined in this study as money given.
- Hormone: chemical released by gland.
- Blood brain barrier: restricts the diffusion of molecules into the cerebral fluid
- Endogenous: produced in an organism, tissue, or cell. Terms Oxytocin has a considerable effect on human behavior, such as trust.
Trust and love
Social memory
Fear reduction
Morhenn et all.
Results show oxytocin is correlated with trust Tutorial step 2 Ethics (+) │ Ethics (-)

Correlation wasn’t the strongest type of method, but it suited the purpose and displayed some sort of correlation indicating the two are related. C-G-E-M Culture played no real role in this study, as it was not mentioned, but it wasn’t quasi and didn’t pertain to only one ethnicity.
Gender did play some role in oxytocin levels, as in the study, women were more likely to show increased oxytocin levels.
Ethics were not violated, or kept minimalistic through out the study. C-G-E-M Limitations of correlational studies are that you can’t make an assumption of cause and effect. Correlation ≠ causation
Weakness: No good tool of measurement for trust, very vague.
Strength: Lots of participants Evaluation higher oxytocin levels in both massage and rest groups who were sent money.
Only one massage session was not deemed enough to raise oxytocin levels
Massage served to prime participants to give back, an act accompanied by increase in oxytocin Results (continued) Control group: no control group (no placebo, but one could interpret the massage only group as a control as no trust game was played)

Experimental group: all 3 groups Procedure (continued) Explain: Give a detailed account including reasons or causes Command term - Oxytocin is linked with trust
- Sending a large amount of money was taken to indicate a high level of trust
- Oxytocin acts as a neurotransmitter Concepts and theories Using one or more examples explain functions of
hormones on human behavior : oxytocin

- Chinar Sheth Oxytocin & trust Using one or more examples, explain functions of hormones on human behavior : Oxytocin and trust

Explain: give a detailed account including reasons or causes Tutorial step 1
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