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Ergot Disease Project

Infectious Disease Project for Mrs. Turner, 5th period, DSA, 2013
by

Corey Coleman

on 7 January 2013

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Transcript of Ergot Disease Project

Ergot Basic Overview - Ergotism is caused by the fungus Ergot (Claviceps Pupurea) - Plant Disease - Effects RYE and other grains What does it look like? - It replaces the grain of rye and makes it a dark, purplish color Quick Early History It was super common!! People thought it was actually PART of the plant How does it spread? Lets first look at it's reproduction process: **It does BOTH sexual and asexual reproduction** Sexual Reproduction Step 1: Plasmogamy Step 2: Growth and Fruiting Body Step 3: Karyogamy Step 4: Meiosis and Mitosis Step 5: Released into the environment Asexual Reproduction Step 1: Conidia (produce spores by mitosis) Lifecycle Then when a human eats the plant that it has infected, it starts to do the entire cycle again, but inside that person During Conidia (the process of asexual reproduction) a thick, sticky liquid is produced To be clear... What is it's vector? Grains Flowers Grasses Insects spread this by landing on plants or other animals Barley Wheat Rye (basically ALL open pollinating plants!) There are two main types: Convulsive and Gangrenous Ergotism Think of it
as a cold! Symptoms of Convulsive Ergotism Vomiting Diarrhea Vivid Hallucinations Sensation of ants crawling all over the body Twitching Blindness Epilepsy-like seizures Deafness Symptoms of Gangrenous Ergotism Structure of fingers and toes changed
Peeling of Skin
Weak Pulses
Loss of Feeling in Limbs
Loss of Skin Tissue Is it always FATAL? YES in Gangrenous Ergotism MOST OF THE TIME for Convulsive Ergotism Earlier and Later Symptoms This Question can only be answered very generally as not all cases are the same EARLY: Gastrointestinal Effects LATER: Central Nervous System Effects (The Fungus) Treatment No specific antidote ALTHOUGH, different things have been tried! Such as the following: - Sympathetic nerve blockades
- Vasodilators
- Anticogulants
- Low Molecular Weight Dectrans
- Temporary Sedation for Hallucination
- Diazepam for Convulsions DONT WORRY!! I WILL EXPLAIN Prevention For prevention, we have to go all the way back to its vectors Flotation Method (Seperated Sclerotia from the non-infected grains of rye) Immerse the Grain in
a 30% KCl solution STEP ONE: STEP TWO: The infected grains are
lighter so they will float Fungicides are also used
to prevent ergot infecting
the crops BUT, there is no
ergot-resistant rye
available!!! Who was usually infected? - Peasants got it more often, why? Right! Because they could not afford an alternate food source! - Thousands of people died from ergotism all around the world in the 1880's, medical journals were found that showed that 40% of the deaths had mean from ergot poisoning - Ergot poisoning was known as St. Anthony's Fire - It is also believed to have caused the Salem Witch Trials (Which suggests that a lot of young women were also infected) After the adoption of the potato, ergot poisoning was no longer as prevelant It became a peasant staple That's why Ireland did not have prevelant Witch Trials to begin with (Potatoes were already everyone's staple) Ergot's influences of History THE SALEM WITCH TRIALS - associated with convulsive ergotism - The situations might seem silly to us now, but the cause of diseases were not known at the time: - Muscle spasms or other physical problems Suspicious Acts: - Hallucinating - Hearing the Devil Speak to you - Thinking you were possessed Healers were also thought to be witches because of the "miracles" they performed Bad time to be a doctor! Greek Mythology Ancient Greeks had tons of temples Ex: Temple of Eleusis People claimed that "great mysteries" were revealed there. But before you went to the Temple of Eleusis... - Fast, Rest, and perform other sacrifices When the fast was broken, one would drink Kykeon! and there you have it! This place attracted Socrates, Plato, Homer, Sophocles, and Euripides! St. Anthony's Fire This disease came from the ergot fungus Early Symptoms Late Symptoms - severely limited blood flow shed nails
lose limbs - intense heat in limbs "Holy Fire" After many weeks, the limbs, dry up, turn black, and then fall off without any pain The Beatles - Their songs are the offspring of LSD Lysergic Acid Diethylamide Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds LSD LSD comes from the ergot fungus Where in the world is Ergotism most prevalent?
Way Back When.......... During the medieval times, it was mainly in Europe. Over the years, ergotism has been prevalent in different places:
Germany France Central Europe Bibliography Schumann, G.L. 2000. Ergot. The Plant Health Instructor. DOI: 10.1094/PHI-I-2000-1016-01
Updated 2005. Date Accessed: 4 Jan 2013 http://www.apsnet.org/edcenter/intropp/lessons/fungi/ascomycetes/Pages/Ergot.aspx Williams, R. L. 1996. The Ergot Fungus and Medical Problems caused by Plants. Updated 1998. Date Accessed: 4 Jan 2013
http://www.itg.be/itg/distancelearning/lecturenotesvandenendene/47_Medical_problems_caused_by_plants.htm Lienhard, John H. 1988. Rye Ergot and Witches. Updated 1997. Date Accessed: 5 Jan 2013 http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi1037.htm Miedema, Kaitlyn. 2011. Claviceps Pupurea (Ergot). Take a Trip Through This Website to Learn about this sweet Organism! Updated 15 April 2011. Date Accessed: 4 Jan 2013. http://bioweb.uwlax.edu/bio203/2011/miedema_kait/index.htm WebMD. 2005. Ergot. Find a Vitamin or Supplement. Updated 2013. Date Accessed: 3 Jan 3013. http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-431-ERGOT.aspx?activeIngredientId=431&activeIngredientName=ERGOT Picture Bibliography Ergot on Rye
http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/wong/BOT135/LECT12.HTM Wheat
http://www.zeitnews.org/node/3889 Winter
http://weatheradvance.com/2012/08/27/2013-farmers-almanac-winter-outlook/ Bird
http://www.google.com/imgres?q=bird&num=10&hl=en&tbo=d&biw=1024&bih=648&tbm=isch&tbnid=LzOjrB-GCdabzM:&imgrefurl=http://printmatic.net/the-bird-story/&docid=WAmgyoBknh_nuM&imgurl=http://printmatic.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/Bird.jpg&w=600&h=500&ei=iU7qULazLZC-9gTaioGQDg&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=136&vpy=158&dur=418&hovh=125&hovw=140&tx=122&ty=119&sig=100667400224159578572&page=1&tbnh=125&tbnw=140&start=0&ndsp=15&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:0,i:159 Flower
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nelumno_nucifera_open_flower_-_botanic_garden_adelaide2.jpg Honey
http://www.google.com/imgres?q=honey+jar&hl=en&tbo=d&biw=1024&bih=648&tbm=isch&tbnid=RiekotlwTcF3NM:&imgrefurl=http://www.123rf.com/photo_4738340_wooden-honey-drizzler-on-honey-jar-isolated-on-white.html&docid=gRpOtR5F38gPIM&imgurl=http://us.123rf.com/400wm/400/400/bds/bds0904/bds090400706/4738340-wooden-honey-drizzler-on-honey-jar-isolated-on-white.jpg&w=1200&h=801&ei=2k7qUJqJNZPc8AT-roDwCQ&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=442&vpy=167&dur=114&hovh=183&hovw=275&tx=177&ty=124&sig=100667400224159578572&page=1&tbnh=137&tbnw=207&start=0&ndsp=19&ved=1t:429,r:3,s:0,i:162 Insect
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2011/04/pictures/110407-science-fossils-insects-bugs-mayflies-mayfly-flying/ Death
http://www.bubblews.com/news/61477-death Panic Face
http://badeventer.blogspot.com/2012/11/red-numbers.html Fungicide
http://www.extremepumpkinstore.com/ecom-catshow/Fungicides.html Potatoes
http://www.potatoes.com/ Witch
http://www.englishtap.com/library/pronunciation/witch.html Devil
http://users.tinyonline.co.uk/gswithenbank/mrsmdth.htm Herbs
http://www.123rf.com/photo_4638932_jars-of-herbs-and-spices.html Greek Bust
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Thucydides-bust-cutout_ROM.jpg St. Anthony
http://210.27.80.89/2005/zhib/example/exam/Ergot-mj.htm The Beatles
http://musicians.allaboutjazz.com/musician.php?id=16500 Europe Map
http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/europe.html by Corey Coleman
For Mrs. Turner
AP Environmental
5th Period
Durham School of the Arts
Durham, North Carolina l,lkklk
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