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Mr. Davey AP European History Chapter 25
Transcript of Mr. Davey AP European History Chapter 25
Causes of WWI
4) Alliance System
June 28, 1914, heir to the Austrian-Hungarian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand is assassinated during visit to Bosnia
The Assassin - 19 year old Serbian nationalist, Gravilo Princip
Member of "The Black Hand", an extremist Serbian organization
Austria-Hungary issues an ultimatum to the Serbian government to avoid war
Key Points of the ultimatum
Allow Austro-Hungarian investigators into Serbia
Publicly denounce anti-Austrian sentiment
Ban anti-Austrian propaganda
Serbia had 48 hours to fully comply, which they did not
Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia on July 28, 1914
Two days after AH declared war against Serbia, Russia declares war against AH and Germany
Germany declares war on France, assuming that they would defend Russia
Great Britain remains neutral
Germany was facing a two-front war
They assumed Russia would be slow to mobilize
Schlieffen Plan was to eliminate France as quickly as possible
This plan was unsuccessful for several reasons .....
Russia mobilized much faster than Germany planned
The plan included invading neutral Belgium
Italy disapproves the plan, withdraws from Triple Alliance
Great Britain enters war to defend Belgium
" is a war that requires a nation to devote all of its resources to fight
Nations had to
borrow money and raise taxes
to fund their involvement in the war
Nations used a system of rationing to limit the purchase of consumer goods.
The Allied and Central powers both rely on shipping to receive supplies
Great Britain was the dominate power on the sea
Germany responds with U-boat attacks on British ships
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
The Lusitania, a British passenger liner, is sunk by a German U-boat
Germany believed it to be secretly transporting weapons from the U.S. to Allied Forces
1,200 innocent citizens (including 128 Americans) were killed
The U.S. threatens to break of relations with Germany
This was a diplomatic correspondence from Germany to Mexico
The message urged Mexico to form an alliance with Germany, and to attack the U.S. if they entered the war
Germany promised to help return Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico back to Mexico
Message was intercepted/decoded by Britain
- Germany begins sinking merchants ships
that they believe are shipping supplies to the Allies
Germany decides to end unrestricted warfare......
Germany decides they will resume unrestricted warfare in 1917
They realize that this will probably pull the U.S. into war
They need a plan to deal with the U.S. if they should enter the war
U.S. Enters War
April 6, 1917
U.S. President Woodrow Wilson declares war on Germany
Over 2 million U.S. serviceman serve on
western front, in France
Fresh, well-supplied American soldiers give a psychological boost to the allies and finally break the stalemate
The "Big 3"
Leaders of the "Big 3" (France, Britain, and United States) put forth ideas for post-war Europe
Treaty of Versailles
Germany accepts full blame (
Article 231 "War Guilt Clause
) for the war, must pay reparations to France and Great Britain.
Germany greatly reduced in size
All of German overseas territories seized as "mandates"
Several new nations formed, including Poland, Lithuania, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia
The League of Nations is formed
Before 1914, most Europeans thought a major military conflict was a thing of the past
They believed they were in an Age of Progress, where confrontations could be settled diplomatically.
The material prosperity of the late 19th-century made many feel as if they were on the verge of a utopian society.
Considered one of the leading causes of WWI
The newly unified nations, combined with nationalities still clamoring for unity, led to intense competition and anxiety.
Each nation-state felt a sense of superiority over their neighbors, and a need to look out for their own self interests.
As nationalistic and imperialistic competition grew, so too did the size of militaries.
Using methods like
(mandatory military service), European armies doubled in size between 1890 and 1914.
This created an arms race between European powers.
Russian and German Mediation
In response to the assassination of Ferdinand, Germany pledged a "blank check" defense promise to Austria-Hungary.
Russia announced their intention of defending the Serbian people in the case of attack by A.H.
William II of Germany and Nicholas II of Russia exchanged telegrams pleading with each other to end aggressions before it resulted in war.
Surprisingly, most Europeans embraced the war early on with enthusiasm.
Most believed that the war would be resolved within a few short weeks and would be an exciting break from mundane daily life.
Military leaders began mobilizing armies, making diplomacy impossible.
War in the West
The failure of the Schlieffen Plan led to a stalemate on the western front.
The German, French, and British soldiers dug trenches in the ground to avoid deadly machine gun fire.
Neither side made progress for months at a time.
The trenches would become the living quarters for soldiers on both sides.
The fighting and artillery barrages would be intermittent, with long periods of boredom between.
The trenches became horrid places with disease carrying rats, dead bodies, human waste, and rampant cases of trench foot.
It became apparent that trench warfare was unrealistic, with neither side making gains.
Hundreds of thousands of men died following orders to attack enemy trenches.
The territory between trenches (no man's land) became the final resting place for over 1 million soldiers charging across.
War on the Eastern Front
The initial Russian invasion of Germany was repelled by a more organized German army.
Unlike the western front, the eastern front was based on troop mobility and rapid, deadly attacks.
Women's Role in WWI
With so many men fighting on the front line, new opportunities opened for women in the work force.
They were proving their worth in jobs previously thought to be "beyond their capabilities"
Women carried this progress post-war and most European nations gave the right to vote to women.
Death: The Great Equalizer
The death toll in WWI did not discriminate against social class.
The two hardest hit demographics were:
Junior Officers who led charges across No Man's Land were usually the first to be mowed down by machine gun fire.
Peasants and unskilled laborers made up the vast majority of front line soldiers. Skilled laborers were kept back to build materials.
The Economics of War
The biggest beneficiaries of WWI were owners of large factories.
They were granted the majority of government contracts for military goods.
Due to lack of available goods, factory owners could inflate prices as high as they wanted.
Turmoil in Russia
The morale in Russia was quickly deteriorating as the death toll was mounting.
Nicholas II was shielded from the realities by his wife, Alexandra.
Alexandra befriended a holy man, Rasputin, and began taking counsel from him on political matters.
The Romanovs and Rasputin were quickly losing support and opposition forces were mobilizing against the Tsar.
The March Revolution
Discontent over wartime casualties, incompetent military leadership, and poor equipment were mounting across Russia.
Even members of the ruling dynasty were losing faith in Nicholas II's leadership following the Rasputin period.
A general strike was called in Petrograd (formerly St. Petersburg), effectively closing all factories.
End of Tsarist Regime
Nicholas II ordered troops to squash the strike in Petrograd, even violently if need be.
The troops complied originally, then began joining the demonstrations.
The Duma (legislative branch) assumed power and setup a provisional government. Nicholas abdicated power three days later.
Rise of the Social Democratic Party
Based on the work of Karl Marx, and the political model of the German SDP, the Russian Social Democratic Party begin to gain popularity.
The SDP split into two main divisions. The
less radical Mensheviks
wanted to achieve socialism through evolutionary means.
more radical Bolsheviks
, led by Vladimir Lenin, were dedicated to a violent takeover of the government.
Rise of Lenin
Lenin had been a dedicated enemy of the Tsar since 1887. He was exiled to Siberia, then eventually Switzerland.
Lenin saw the discontent in Russia in 1917 as the perfect opportunity to make his move.
With the help of Germany, Lenin and a small group of followers were shipped to Petrograd.
Lenin gained immediate popularity amongst the Soviets (working class) with his promises of "
peace, land, and bread.
Lenin publicly laid out his blueprint for revolutionary action of the working class.
He argued that Russia could
avoid a bourgeoisie revolution
and move directly into socialism.
redistribute the land
evenly to the peasantry.
Bolsheviks Seize Power
On November 6th, 1917, Bolsheviks (renamed Communists) forcefully overthrew the provisional government with little bloodshed.
Lenin's first task was to get Russia out of the war.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
In order to withdraw from the war, Lenin signed a treaty with Germany. In exchange for peace, Lenin gave up Finland, Ukraine, Poland, and the Baltic States.
Casualties of the Great War
The general elections of the provisional government were not successful for the Bolsheviks. The results would later be dismissed by Lenin.
Final Year of War
Following Russia's withdrawal from the war, Germany was able to launch a major offensive on the western front.
It was successful at first, bringing Germany as close as 35 miles from Paris.
The allies recovered and began pushing Germany back.
Knowing all hope was lost, German General Ludendorff appealed to Wilhelm II to sue for peace.
8 - 9 Million Soldiers died on the battlefield.
Germany - 1.8 Million
Russia - 1.7 Million
France - 1.3 Million
Austria-Hungary - 1.2 Million
Britain - 900,000
U.S. - 100,000
Millions more civilians also perished during WWI.
one millions ethnic Armenians
were killed by the Ottoman Empire. This is considered one of the greatest examples of genocide in history.
On November 11th, 1918, Germany signed an agreement to end the war.
November 9th, 1918 - Wilhelm II gave into public pressure and flees the country.
By this time, Austria-Hungary was also facing uprisings at home. They split into multiple independent nations: Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia.
Wilson (United States)
Pushed "14 Points"
Wanted end to secret alliances
Freedom of the seas
Formation of League of Nations
Reduction of militarism amongst all nations
Germany should be heavily punished and prevented from any future attacks on France
Wanted Germany completely de-militarized
Wanted Alsace-Lorraine returned to France
Wanted Germany to admit complete fault for war
Believed Germany should pay reparations to Britain and France for the war.
Lasting Impacts of WWI
Centralized and expanded government powers in most nations.
Increased government's role in regimenting economies
Public opinion manipulation through propaganda
Women's right to vote
The feelings of victimization by Germany
Increased production of new military technologies (Planes, tanks, machine guns, u-boats, etc.
Governments using police powers to regulate public dissent during war time