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Transcript of PRODUCTION OF
Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Legislations
and Regulations in India
ENVIRONMENTAL AND SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS
Physical and Chemical Properties
As solvents and for processing isocyanates
Manufacture of polysulfone polymers
Manufacture of nitrochlorobenzenes
Comparison between Processes
Benzene Chlorination in the Liquid Phase
Benzene + Chlorine Chlorobenzene + Hydrogen Chloride
C6H6 + Cl2 C6H5Cl + HCl
Process Flow Diagram (PFD)
Supply and demand
Location (Marketing Area)
Raw material supply
COUNTRIES IN CONSIDERATION
Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
Taloja Industrial Area
Kota, Rajasthan, India
Indraprastha Industrial Area
Dahej GIDC industrial area,
Law of Conservation of Mass
Mass can neither be created nor destroy
Input + Generation – Output – Consumption = Accumulation
Continuous process always operated at steady state condition. Thus the accumulation term in the general balance equation equals to zero for this process. Hence,
Input + Generation = Output – Consumption
IN THE PROCESS
Process is steady state condition.
There is only 334 days or 8000 hours for the plant operation.
Another 31 days (approximately 1 month) the plant will be under maintenance.
Continuous process was applied.
TOTAL MOLE FLOW FOR CHLOROBENZENE
MASS BALANCE FOR
MASS BALANCE FOR CHLORINATOR
MASS BALANCE FOR NEUTRALIZER
MASS BALANCE FOR FLASH DRUM
MASS BALANCE FOR BENZENE COLUMN
MASS BALANCE DICHLOROBENZENE COLUMN
The extent reaction calculation is used to calculate the mole of feed and product of the production of Chlorobenzene.
The product ratio is 8.7:1.3 which mean the total mole of chlorobenzene is 8.7 times of 1.3 mole of dichlorobenzene.
Feed is 100% conversion of chlorine and 87.5% conversion of benzene
The catalyst not involve in the reaction
Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) will remove at neutralizer unit and Dichlorobenzene (C6H4Cl2) are by product
SCALE FOR DESIRE PRODUCT
Mole flow for Every Unit
New Value of Each Stream After Multiplied With 1.0288
From the outlet stream 16 at Chlorobenzene Column, the Chlorobenzene (C6H5Cl) value is 7275.569 kg/hr
The value is not same as the value from the overall calculation made before which are 7485.03 kh/hr
The ratio difference value is 1.0185
HEAT CAPACITY VALUE
Energy balance used in design project to determine the required energy for many processes
Energy balance is done to calculate the total energy used.
General equation :
Hence the equation can be reduced as Q= ΔH
P = 1 atm @ 101.3kPa and T = 25˚C @ 298 K
The system is open system and steady state
No moving part so the W is zero
All streams enter and leave the process at a single height so the value of ∆E is zero
The molar flow rates for each stream that want to calculate are taken from the value that obtained from the mass balance calculation section.
The temperature and pressure for each stream are obtained from ASPEN simulation and from the certain patent regarding the production of Cholorobenzene
The values of A, B, C, D are taken from Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes, Wiley Edition and from Yaws’ Handbook of Thermodynamic and Physical Properties of Chemical Compound.
SUMMARY OF CALCULATED ENERGY BALANCE
The unit involved in calculation of energy balance is
Environmental Acts and Regulations in India
Waste Identification and Treatment
Aspen Plus v8
Process simulation had help engineers in modern era and had many advantages such as process simulation had short the time needed to converge a process ,able to design a large scale of process without using any cost of material and able to estimate the problem before the construct the plan
this simulation support reaction of NaOH chlorinating to NaCl in neutralizer process.
this fluid packages support
VLE, vapour-liquid equilibrium characteristics for mixture and pure process for hydrocarbon process
After simulating using both fluid packages,
data toward the target production in distillation column.
pure benzene, room condition 2.4bar, 40 C
pure chlorine, room condition 2.4bar, 40 C
2.4bar, 40 C
87.5% benzene converted to chlorobenzene
13% of chlorobenzene will further reacted to dichlorobenzene
10% caustic solution will be added in order to fully react with HCl
Unreacted benzene, chlorobenzene, and dichlorobenzene will be withdraw as overhead product and will sent to benzene column for further process
benzene column (distillation column) to separate unreacted benzene that can be used as recycle.
The operating pressure had been set as 1 atm for both reboiler and condenser.
The desired distillate product of 98% benzene and 2% chlorobenzene.
chlorobenzene column (distillation column) where the end product will be distillate.
The operating temperature is 1 atm for both reboiler and condenser.
Distillation column had been simulate to desire product purity whih is 99% chlorobenzene and 85% dichlorobenzene
Suggested land site in
Dahej GIDC, Gujarat
Global consumption of Chlorobenzene by major region
Cost of Raw Materials, Products and byproduct
Price of Raw Materials, Products and byproduct (MATRADE, 2014)
= [Cost of Product] – [Cost of Raw Material]
= [USD93,000,001/yr] – [USD64,448,413/yr + USD18,139,319/yr]
= [Profit margin] + [Cost of By Product]
= USD10,412,269/yr + [USD4,537,326/yr + USD17,304,278/yr]
A single operator works on the average 49 weeks a year
3 weeks’ time off for vacation and sick leave
8 hour and 5 shift a week
A chemical plant normally operates 24 hr/day
ESTIMATION COST OF OPERATING LABOR
ESTIMATION OF PURCHASED EQUIPMENT COST (Matches, 2014)
ESTIMATION OF FIXED CAPITAL INVESTMENT/COST
ESTIMATION OF MANUFACTURING COST
Net Annual Profit, ANP
= Revenue – Total Manufacturing Cost
= USD114,841,605/yr - USD87,847,901.42/yr
= (0.35)( USD26,993,703.58/yr)
Net Annual Profit After Tax
= ANP – Income Tax
So, the Net Annual Profit After Tax was
USD17,545,907.33/yr for 15 years life project
= year 5 – year 3
= 2 years
With first profit of USD5,844,341