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PRODUCTION OF

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muzzaffar zaidi

on 4 July 2014

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Transcript of PRODUCTION OF

Physical and Chemical Properties of Hazardous Materials

Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Legislations
and Regulations in India

Environmental Considerations

CHAPTER 6
:
ENVIRONMENTAL AND SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS
PRODUCTION

OF

60,000

METRIC

TONNES
PER

YEAR

OF

CHLOROBENZENE

CHAPTER 1:
PROCESS SELECTION

Physical and Chemical Properties

As solvents and for processing isocyanates
6%
Manufacture of polysulfone polymers
26%

Manufacture of nitrochlorobenzenes
48%

Applications

Other applications
20%

Comparison between Processes

Process Selection

Selected Process

Benzene Chlorination in the Liquid Phase

Benzene + Chlorine Chlorobenzene + Hydrogen Chloride

C6H6 + Cl2 C6H5Cl + HCl

Process Flow Diagram (PFD)

CHAPTER 2
:

SITE SELECTION
GENERAL ASSUMPTION
GENERAL LIMITATION
Political
Economic

Business surroundings
Supply and demand


Land price
utilities tariff
Labor



Transport facilities
Environmental impact


Climate
Location (Marketing Area)
Raw material supply


CRITERIA IN
CONSIDERATION
COUNTRIES IN CONSIDERATION
India
China
USA
SUGGESTED
SITE LOCATION


Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Taloja Industrial Area
Kota, Rajasthan, India

Indraprastha Industrial Area

Gujarat ,India
Dahej GIDC industrial area,
Scoring Method

chapter 4
:
MASS BALANCE

INTRODUCTION
Law of Conservation of Mass
Mass can neither be created nor destroy

General equation:

Input + Generation – Output – Consumption = Accumulation

Continuous process always operated at steady state condition. Thus the accumulation term in the general balance equation equals to zero for this process. Hence,

Input + Generation = Output – Consumption

MAIN REACTION
IN THE PROCESS
BASIS
CALCULATION
Process is steady state condition.
There is only 334 days or 8000 hours for the plant operation.
Another 31 days (approximately 1 month) the plant will be under maintenance.
Continuous process was applied.

TOTAL MOLE FLOW FOR CHLOROBENZENE
MASS BALANCE FOR
OVERALL PRODUCTION
MASS BALANCE FOR CHLORINATOR
MASS BALANCE FOR NEUTRALIZER
MASS BALANCE FOR FLASH DRUM
MASS BALANCE FOR BENZENE COLUMN
MASS BALANCE DICHLOROBENZENE COLUMN
The extent reaction calculation is used to calculate the mole of feed and product of the production of Chlorobenzene.

Assumption:

The product ratio is 8.7:1.3 which mean the total mole of chlorobenzene is 8.7 times of 1.3 mole of dichlorobenzene.

Feed is 100% conversion of chlorine and 87.5% conversion of benzene

The catalyst not involve in the reaction

Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) will remove at neutralizer unit and Dichlorobenzene (C6H4Cl2) are by product

SCALE FOR DESIRE PRODUCT
Mole flow for Every Unit
New Value of Each Stream After Multiplied With 1.0288
From the outlet stream 16 at Chlorobenzene Column, the Chlorobenzene (C6H5Cl) value is 7275.569 kg/hr

The value is not same as the value from the overall calculation made before which are 7485.03 kh/hr

The ratio difference value is 1.0185


HEAT CAPACITY VALUE
Energy balance used in design project to determine the required energy for many processes
Energy balance is done to calculate the total energy used.
General equation :




Hence the equation can be reduced as Q= ΔH

INTRODUCTION
INFORMATION
Assumptioms:

P = 1 atm @ 101.3kPa and T = 25˚C @ 298 K
The system is open system and steady state
No moving part so the W is zero
All streams enter and leave the process at a single height so the value of ∆E is zero

Basis:

The molar flow rates for each stream that want to calculate are taken from the value that obtained from the mass balance calculation section.
The temperature and pressure for each stream are obtained from ASPEN simulation and from the certain patent regarding the production of Cholorobenzene
The values of A, B, C, D are taken from Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes, Wiley Edition and from Yaws’ Handbook of Thermodynamic and Physical Properties of Chemical Compound.

SUMMARY OF CALCULATED ENERGY BALANCE
The unit involved in calculation of energy balance is

P-101,
C-101,
E-101,
E-102,
E-103,
R-101,
R-102,
T-101 ,
V-101,
T-102.

CHAPTER 5
:
ENERGY BALANCE

ref
ref
s
p
Safety Considerations

Environmental Acts and Regulations in India

Waste Identification and Treatment

CHAPTER 7:
PROCESS SIMULATION
Aspen Plus v8

Process simulation had help engineers in modern era and had many advantages such as process simulation had short the time needed to converge a process ,able to design a large scale of process without using any cost of material and able to estimate the problem before the construct the plan

this simulation support reaction of NaOH chlorinating to NaCl in neutralizer process.
RK-SOAVE,
Redlich-Kwong-SOAVE
this fluid packages support
VLE, vapour-liquid equilibrium characteristics for mixture and pure process for hydrocarbon process
.
After simulating using both fluid packages,
RK-SOAVE show
more accurate
data toward the target production in distillation column.
pure benzene, room condition 2.4bar, 40 C

pure chlorine, room condition 2.4bar, 40 C
o
o
Chlorinator ,

2.4bar, 40 C
o
87.5% benzene converted to chlorobenzene
13% of chlorobenzene will further reacted to dichlorobenzene
10% caustic solution will be added in order to fully react with HCl
Unreacted benzene, chlorobenzene, and dichlorobenzene will be withdraw as overhead product and will sent to benzene column for further process
benzene column (distillation column) to separate unreacted benzene that can be used as recycle.
The operating pressure had been set as 1 atm for both reboiler and condenser.


The desired distillate product of 98% benzene and 2% chlorobenzene.
chlorobenzene column (distillation column) where the end product will be distillate.
The operating temperature is 1 atm for both reboiler and condenser.
Distillation column had been simulate to desire product purity whih is 99% chlorobenzene and 85% dichlorobenzene
Error Deviation

Suggested land site in
Dahej GIDC, Gujarat
Wastewater Treatment


Global consumption of Chlorobenzene by major region
Cost of Raw Materials, Products and byproduct
PROFIT MARGIN
Price of Raw Materials, Products and byproduct (MATRADE, 2014)
CHAPTER 3
:
MARKET ANALYSIS
$
YEARS
Profit Margin

= [Cost of Product] – [Cost of Raw Material]
= [USD93,000,001/yr] – [USD64,448,413/yr + USD18,139,319/yr]
= USD10,412,269/yr

Total profit
= [Profit margin] + [Cost of By Product]
= USD10,412,269/yr + [USD4,537,326/yr + USD17,304,278/yr]
= USD32,253,873/yr
Assumption;
A single operator works on the average 49 weeks a year
3 weeks’ time off for vacation and sick leave
8 hour and 5 shift a week
A chemical plant normally operates 24 hr/day

ESTIMATION COST OF OPERATING LABOR

ESTIMATION OF PURCHASED EQUIPMENT COST (Matches, 2014)
ESTIMATION OF FIXED CAPITAL INVESTMENT/COST
China
Western Europe

United States

Japan

ESTIMATION OF MANUFACTURING COST
Net Annual Profit, ANP
= Revenue – Total Manufacturing Cost
= USD114,841,605/yr - USD87,847,901.42/yr
= USD26,993,703.58/yr

Income Tax
= 35%ANP
= (0.35)( USD26,993,703.58/yr)
= USD9,447,796.25/yr

Net Annual Profit After Tax
= ANP – Income Tax
= USD26,993,703.58/yr-USD9,447,796.25/yr
= USD17,545,907.33/yr

So, the Net Annual Profit After Tax was
USD17,545,907.33/yr for 15 years life project

NET PROFIT
Breakeven point
= USD38,280,535

Payback period
= year 5 – year 3
= 2 years

With first profit of USD5,844,341
Full transcript