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Old World Wine Tasting

University Club
by

Cory Hart

on 20 February 2013

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Transcript of Old World Wine Tasting

Austria Spain France Italy How to Taste
See
Swirl
Sniff
Sip
Savor
Vino de Mesa (VdM)
Vinos de la Tierra (VdlT)
Vino de Calidad Producido en Region Determinada (VCPRD)
Denominacion de Origen (DO)
Denominacion de Origen Calificada (DOCa/DOQ) Spanish Classification System Major Regions Notable Wine: Cava
Methode Champenoise
Grapes: macabeu, parellada and xarel·lo


Major Grape: Albarino
Galician Coast
Marine Climate
delicate, lively, aromatic whites
Introduced by Cistercian Monks
12th Century Major Regions Major Grape: Tempranillo
Terrain/Climate: Flat, Rocky, Hot
Produces intense wines intended for long aging


1st Region to achieve DOC status (1991)
Most iconic and recognized region in Spain

Varied Climate and Soil

Normally a Blend of Grape Varieties
Rioja Tinto (red): Tempranillo, Garnacha Tinta, Graciano, and Mazuelo. (Cabernet Sauvignon uneasily tolerated)
Rioja Blanco (white): Viura (Macabeo), Malvasia, Garnacha Blanca Rioja Ribera del Duero Penedes Riax Baixas History Sherry Based around city of Jerez
Center of viticulture since Phonecians in 1100BC
Incredibly popular in England (known as 'sack')

Types:
Fino - driest & palest
Manzanilla - especially light variety of Fino
Manzanilla Pasada - Manzanilla undergone extensive aging or oxidation (richer, nuttier)
Amontillado - aged, then exposed to oxygen. Naturally dry, darker than fino, lighter than oloroso
Oloroso - longer oxidization, richer & fuller. Highest alcohol content (18-20%) among sherries
Palo Cortado - initially aged like amontillado, develops character closer to oloroso
Jerez Dulce - fermenting dried Pedro Ximénez or Moscatel grapes, or blending sweeter wines w. drier varieties
Cream - rich, deep amber to golden brown, very sweet Solera System Fractional Blending 1100 BC Phoenicians Establish Cadiz Amphorae 200 BC - 400 AD Spanish Wine Gaul:
Normandy
Loire Valley
Brittany
Provence
Bordeaux Roman Soldiers guarding borders in Britain and Germania Under Roman Rule 790 - 1492 Muslim Occupation Moors Reconquista Completed 1492-1600 English defeat of Spanish Armada No more wine production in Americas 17th & 18th
Centuries Nothing too Exciting Happened in the Spanish Wine World Mid-Late
19th Century Phylloxera & French Influence Spanish Civil War 1936-1939 World War II 1939-1945 1950s-60s Stability & Revival Sherry Bulk Wine Francisco Franco Dies 1975 Democracy
& Wine 1970s-80s Modernization & Quality 1986 Spain Joins EU Galicia &
La Mancha 1990s Irrigation! Large
International
Influence -
'Flying Winemakers' 21st Century Quality Germany Whites (65% of all plantings)
Riesling
Müller-Thurgau (Rivaner)
Silvaner
Grauburgunder (Pinot Gris)
Gewürztraminer

Reds
Spätburgunder (Pinot Noir)
Dornfelder Grapes Germany is the home of quality Riesling Riesling!! Characteristics of German Rieslings:
Light, low alcohol content (7-11%)
Multi-dimensional
can be completely dry with slight hint of natural sweetness to lusciously rich & sweet
Long, slow ripening period
requires one of longest growing season of any variety
among most northerly wine region in world
Noted for balance of fruit and acidity German conditions are perfectly suited for an optimal Riesling Kabinett - literally "cabinet", meaning wine of reserve quality to be kept in the vintner's cabinet
fully ripened light wines from the main harvest
Spätlese - meaning "late harvest"
typically semi-sweet, often (but not always) sweeter and fruitier than Kabinett.
Auslese - meaning "select harvest"
made from very ripe, hand selected bunches, typically semi-sweet or sweet, sometimes with some noble rot character
Beerenauslese - meaning "select berry harvest"
overripe grapes individually selected from bunches, often affected by noble rot, making rich sweet dessert wine
Eiswein (ice wine)
grapes that have been naturally frozen on the vine, making a very concentrated wine
Trockenbeerenauslese - meaning "select dry berry harvest" or "dry berry selection"
selected overripe shrivelled grapes often affected by noble rot making extremely rich sweet wines Prädikat designations Trocken
dry

Halbtrocken
semi-sweet

Feinherb
'semi-sweeter'

Lieblich
sweet Sweetness Designations dry sweet Discovery of late harvest (Spätlese) 1775
Messenger carrying the permission to harvest from the prince bishop of Fulda to the monks on the Johannisberg in the Rheingau was delayed for 14 days
Harvest could only begin after the berries were already affected by noble rot 1830
In Dromersheim on the Rhine, the wine-growers did not harvest the grapes because of their poor quality
Decided to pick them in the winter in order to use as cattle feed
Noticed the frozern grapes turned into a very sweet and tasty juice with high must weight
Pressed the grapes ---> Ice Wine born! Germany is the birthplace of ice wine (Eiswine) France Germany Austria Italy Spain Portugal Understanding French Wine Label A.O.C. Appellation d'origine contrôlée Certification for French geographical indications
Consumer guarantee
- quality, style, area, laws & regulations History
- Monks
- Napoleon
Quality Levels
Grapes Burgundy Chablis
Cote de Nuit
Cote de Beaune
Cote Chalonnaise
Maconnais
Beaujolais Regions Grand Cru Premier Cru Village Wine Bourgogne Rouge & Blanc Pinot Noir
Chardonnay *Gamay (in Beaujolais) Cote d'Or Bordeaux History
- Port City
- England
Why So Awesome
1855 Classification Medoc
St. Estephe
Pauillac
St. Julien
Margaux
Graves
Pomerol
St. Emilion
Entre-Deux-Mers
Pessac-Leognan Important Regions varietals and styles Permitted Red Grapes:
-Cabernet Sauvignon
- Merlot
- Cabernet Franc
- Petit Verdot
- Malbec*
- Carmenere* *rarely used Left Bank & Right Bank Cabernet Sauvignon Merlot Primary White Varietals Sauvignon Blanc
Semillion Region: Sauternes
Syrah
The Pope
North vs South
Terroir Rhone Valley Reds
Syrah
Grenache
Mouvedre
Cinsault
Whites
Viognier
Roussanne
Marsanne Varietals Notable Appelations
Cote Rotie
Hermitage
Crozes Hermitage
Cornas
Chateauneuf du Pape
Cotes du Rhone
Gigondas
Vacqueyras
Tavel Northern Rhone Southern Rhone Terraced Vineyards
of Cote Rotie Stoned Vineyards of Chateauneuf du Pape Portugal Vinho Verde

Furthest region north
Not a grape variety, name literally means "green wine"
can be red, white or rose
Many small growers (30,000 as of 2005)

Terroir:
Soils are acid-rich and granite-based
Slopes tend to be gentle, though some are on steep or terraced slopes
Gets lots of rainfall: 59 in annually Distinct Vinho Verde Fizz Traditionally was caused by release of carbon dioxide during malolactic fermentation

Many times today, CO2 is just added to the wine Madeira was a standard port of call for ships headed to New World or East Indies
to prevent wine from spoiling, neutral grape spirits were added
exposed to excessive heat and movement

Producers noticed the difference when a shipment was returned after a long trip
customers preferred this style
vinho da roda (wines that have made the round trip) became popular

Madeira very important to US colonies
Washington, Hamilton, Franklin, Adams all fond
Seizure of J. Hancock's ship containing Madeira caused riots in Boston Madeira Named after coastal city of Porto on the Douro

Fortified wine produced exclusively in the Douro Valley
oldest (1756) defined and protected wine region in the world
Chianti (1716) and Tokaj (1730) have older demarcation, but no regulation associated

Made up of 3 official zones:
Baixo Corgo
Cima Corgo
Duoro Superior

Grapes: over a hundred varieties, although only 5 are widely used
Tinta Barroca, Tinta Cao, Tinta Roriz, Touriga Francesa, Touriga Nacional Port Methuen Treaty of 1703 (also known as 'The Port Wine Treaty')
became very popular in England when merchants were permitted to import at a low duty
long trip to England resulted in spoiled wine, fortification was used

The 1756 designation by Marques de Pombal guaranteed the quality of the product and regulated export

English war with France increased popularity

English influence on Port shippers:
Cockburn, Croft, Dow, Gould, Graham, Osborne, Offley, Sandeman, Taylor, Warre History of Port Categories of Italian Wines Vino de Tavola
Indicazione Geografica Tipica (IGT)
Denominazione di Origine Controllata (DOC)
Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita (DOCG) Tre Venenzie Veneto Trentino-Alto Adige Friuli-Venezia Giulia Wines:
Amarone
Valpolicella
Soave
Prosecco Wines:
Pinot Grigio
Chardonnay
Pinot Bianco
Gewürztraminer Wines:
Tocai Friulano
Pinot Grigio
Pinot Bianco
Chardonnay Piedmont
Grapes
Barbera
Dolcetto
Barolo & Barbaresco
Nebbiolo Asti
&
Alba Toscana Chainti
Evolution & the DOC
Super Tuscans Consorzio Vino Chainti Classico
'Gallo Nero' Grapes
Sangiovese
Cabernet Sauvignon
Merlot
Trebbiano
Vernaccia Producers Association
Promoting & Defending Chianti Classico Gruner Veltliner Most notable and widely planted grape
36% of total vineyards

Grown around the Danube since Roman times

Big resurgance after phylloxera in late 1800s 1985 'Antifreeze' Scandal Limited number of Austrian winemakers illegally added toxic substance diethylene glycol (primary ingredient in andifreeze) to make wines appear sweeter and more full bodied

uncovered by German labs performing quality controls on wine sold in Germany

Complete collapse of Austrian wine exports and total loss of reputation of wine industry almost overnight
pre-1985 exports: 45mil litres
1986 exports: 4.4mil litres
2001: first year to reach old level of exports

Sweeping quality measures enacted after
scandal Old World Wines Albania
Armenia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bulgaria
Croatia
Czech Republic
Cyprus
England
France
Georgia Germany
Greece
Hungary
Italy
Moldova
Portugal
Romania
Serbia
Slovakia
Slovenia
Spain
Switzerland
Turkey Doesn't indicate a style of wine, but more traditions and winemaking philosophies Thank you! email: cchart@pc.pitt.edu

presentation: http://prezi.com/user/uclubcory

New World Tasting - Next week, February 20 at 6pm
Full transcript