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Truman and the Cold War/Cold War and the Americas IB History
Transcript of Truman and the Cold War/Cold War and the Americas IB History
Truman, containment, and its implications for the Americas; the rise of McCarthyism and its effects on domestic and foreign polices of the United States; the Cold War and its impact on society and culture
The Korean War and the United States and the Americas: reasons for participation; military developments; diplomatic and political outcomes
Eisenhower and Dulles: New Look and its application; characteristics and reasons for the policy; repercussions for the region.
US foreign policy from Kennedy to Carter: the characteristics of, and reasons for, policies; implications for the region: Kennedy’s Alliance for Progress; Nixon’s covert operations in Chile; Carter’s quest for human rights and the Panama Canal Treaty
United States’ involvement in Vietnam: reasons for, and the nature of the involvement at different stages; domestic effects; the end of the war
Analyze the Cold War Historians
Look at the quotes supplied concerning responsibility for the cold war. Which factors, people, and events are most responsible according to the historians? consider the origin and purpose of the sources, which seem most valuable?
THE IRON CURTAIN DROPS
Soviets were able to solidify control over Eastern Europe due to their military presence there.
Stalin wanted a buffer zone and reparations from Germany after the war.
The US and the Allies wanted free markets and fewer reparations.
Communists dominated the coalition governments in many of these countries.
They also often controlled the police, army & the courts.
When elections were held, purges & disenfranchisement made it impossible for other political parties to gain power.
Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, & others fell under the control of Moscow.
Many of these initiated Soviet style reforms like collectivization & nationalization of industry.
"it must be the policy of the United States to support free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures."
The modern system of the division of labor upon which the exchange of products is based is in danger of breaking down. ... Aside from the demoralizing effect on the world at large and the possibilities of
disturbances arising as a result of the desperation of the people concerned, the consequences to the economy of the United States should be apparent to all. It is logical that the United States should do whatever it is able to do to assist in the return of
normal economic health to the world, without which there can be no political stability and no assured peace. Our policy is not directed against any country, but against hunger, poverty, desperation and chaos. Any government that is willing to assist in recovery will find full co-operation on the
part of the USA. Its purpose should be the revival of a working economy in the world so as to permit the emergence of political and social conditions in which free institutions can exist.
What is the Message conveyed in this cartoon?
GEORGE KENNAN'S LONG TELEGRAM
THE TRUMAN SHOW
THE MARSHALL MATHERS' PLAN
“I can’t take communism, nor can you, but to cross this bridge I would hold hands with the Devil”
“If Hitler invaded Hell I would make at least a favorable reference to the Devil in the House of Commons”
Based on Kennan's recommendation that the US adopt a “long term, patient but firm and vigilant containment of Russian expansion tendencies”
How did American Foreign Policy evolve in regards to the Soviet Union under FDR and Truman?
What is the Cold War? How would you define it?
Consider the who? what? when? why? where? how?
Come up with definitions in groups of 2, then expand to 4.
Group with the best definition wins an Intercontinental ballistic missile.
HOW DID CONTAINMENT DIFFER FROM PREVIOUS APPROACH?
"The new strategy contained several departures from past practice: (1) No further efforts would be made to conceal disagreements with the Russians; rather, these would be aired openly, frankly, but in a nonprovocative manner. (2) There would be no more concessions to the Soviet Union: the United States would, in effect, "draw the line," defending all future targets of Soviet expansion, but without any attempt to "liberate" areas already under Moscow's control. (3) To facilitate this goal, United States military strength would be reconstituted and requests from allies for economic and military aid would be favorably considered. (4) Negotiations with the Soviet Union would continue, but only for the purpose of registering Moscow's acceptance of American positions or of publicizing Soviet intransigence in order to win allies abroad and support at home. The idea, in all of this, was that, confronted by Western firmness, Stalin would see Western patience as the more desirable alternative, and would begin to exercise the restraint necessary to bring it about. Or, as Clark Clifford's' top secret report to President Truman on Soviet American relations put it in September: "it is our hope that they will change their minds and work out with us a fair and equitable settlement when they realize that we are too strong to be beaten and too determined to be frightened.""
Strategies of Containment
, p 21
FDR believed that the Soviets could be contained through integration into the postwar international community. Once the threats of the Germans and the Japanese ceased to exist, the Soviets would feel more secure and therefore, be more cooperative. Soviet insecurity, in this equation, came from factors
to the Soviet regime.
FDR never saw the ideological orientation of the Soviet Union as a barrier to having cooperative relations at an interstate level. He distinguished between the fascist use of force to achieve objectives and the communist use of subversion and propaganda.
Focus was on building mutual trust between the Allies during the war (with some significant exceptions like sharing information on the atomic bomb) and hoping for the best. He was, however, prepared should things go sour.
Ideas generally reflected in his policies: refused to send Anglo-American soldiers to Eastern Europe and the Balkans during the war. He feared the Soviets would see this as an offensive move. He also feared the possibility of pushing the Nazis and the Soviets into an alliance, losing American soldiers, and triggering an isolationist backlash at home.
VOICES OF DISSENT
W Averell Harriman
John R Deane
The two became increasingly frustrated in their dealings with the Russians.
Harriman grew angry at Moscow's tendency to impose unilateral political settlements in Eastern Europe as its armies moved into that region
The Russians showed unwillingness to share information or facilities, which angered Deane.
"Gratitude cannot be banked in the Soviet Union"
What was needed was a harder line,
QUID PRO QUO
strategy ("something for something")
FDR did not necessarily oppose a Quid Pro Quo strategy, but insisted that anything like it only be implemented AFTER the war was over.
Harry Truman was a US Senator from Missouri when he was picked as FDRs running mate in the 1944 election.
He became President of the United States in April of 1945 when FDR died.
He had not been kept up to date on military strategy or diplomatic issues as Vice President.
When he asked Eleanor Roosevelt if there was anything he could do for her, she famously replied
"Is there anything we can do for you? You are the one in trouble now!"
In groups of three, discuss Truman's options in dealing with the Soviet Union. What are the strengths and weaknesses of each plan? What policy should Truman adopt?
Though he did not send Anglo-American forces to Eastern Europe, he accepted the advice of advisers such as Harriman.
He began trying to use the leverage the US had in the relationship, saying Lend Lease would not be extended past the end of the war. Postwar loans and aid would be tied to future Soviet cooperation.
Took a very paternalistic approach to Soviet relations, lecturing high ranking Soviet officials in a way FDR never would have.
quid pro quo
strategy did not work. The sticks the US had could not be used or were unimpressive and the carrots not important enough to justify concessions from the Soviets.
It seemed to Truman and his advisers that the USSR was impervious to outside influences. Quid pro quo was tossed aside. What would take its place?
In February, 1946, Kennan wrote his report on Soviet actions.
Assumptions underlying American foreign policy during WWII were wrong. The Soviets were not able to be influenced by external events, as they needed the US as an enemy to justify their authoritarian regime. Cooperation with the West was not an option.
Kennan later wrote that
"We have come to the conclusion that nothing short of complete disarmament, delivery of our air and naval forces to Russia and resigning of the powers of government to American Communists would even dent this problem: and even then we believe-and this is not facetious-that Moscow would smell a trap and would continue to harbor [the] most baleful misgivings."
THE TRUMAN DOCTRINE
Great Britain had announced they would end its military and financial support of Greece and Turkey. Truman felt he needed to act so those countries would not fall to communism.
Neither of these countries fell to communism, though the US had been wrong in assuming the communist movements were being directed by Moscow.
THE MARSHALL PLAN
Billions of dollars in aid to wartorn Europe in order to lessen the appeal of communism
Assignment: Rewrite one verse and the chorus of Eminem's "Lose Yourself" based on Truman and Containment
FDR, Stalin, and the Grand Alliance
CNN's Cold War Documentaries
"The Iron curtain"
"the Marshall Plan"
CNN's Cold War Documentaries
THE RIO TREATY
Monroe Doctrine (1823): attempts by European powers to colonize L & S America would be viewed as aggressive and require US action.
Roosevelt Corollary (1904): US could intervene in the case of “flagrant and chronic wrongdoing by a Latin American Nation”.
Panama Canal: A Man, a Plan, a Canal, Panama.
Interventions: Cuba (1898), Mexico, Cuba, Panama and Nicaragua under Wilson, Nicaragua and Guatemala and Haiti and the Dominican Republic and Belize and Costa..........
But during the Cold War, the US used the Monroe Doctrine to justify intervention in L and S America in order to fight socialist and communist movements, even if those movements were largely democratic and those allied with the US were dictatorial.
FDR largely departed from this policy in implementing The Good Neighbor Policy, which focused on nonintervention, strengthening trade ties, withdrawing US military forces, and solidifying allies in World War II
What was US policy IN LATIN AMERICA PRE-1945?
"In his award-winning study; The Global Cold War, historian Odd Arne Westad asserts that 'the Cold War was a continuation of colonialism through slightly different means'. Much as the European imperial powers had done for several hundred years, the United States and the Soviet Union sought control and domination over people in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Prior to 1945, the United States had not colonized Latin American nations. But in the previous fifty years, the United States had created a sphere of influence within the Western Hemisphere. The United States tried to maintain peace and stability, exclude foreign influences, expand U.S. trade and investment, and shape Latin America’s political, socioeconomic, and ideological development. The anti -Communist crusade that the United States pursued in Latin America during the Cold War was rooted in that tradition."
Stephen Rabe, THE KILLING ZONE
TRUMAN'S LATIN AMERICA POLICY, 1945-49
"President Truman and his foreign-policy team also had no background or interest in Latin America. President Roosevelt considered Latin America significant, and he listened to powerful figures ... who gave priority to the inter-American community. Truman and his secretaries of state, James Byrnes, George Marshall, and Dean Acheson, evinced little interest in the region, did not speak Spanish ,or Portuguese, and did not appoint influential people to lead the Latin American Affairs division of the State Department."
"Truman thought Latin Americans were like Jews and the Irish-"very emotional" and difficult to handle. Secretary Acheson wrote in his memoirs that "Hispano-Indian culture-or lack of it" had been "piling up its problems for centuries". For Acheson, Latin America meant "an explosive population. stagnant economy, archaic society, primitive politics, massive ignorance, illiteracy, and poverty"
The Killing Zone
AND THE OAS
Despite this general outlook, the Truman Administration did have some significant dealings with Latin America between 45-49
RIO TREATY (1947): Agreement at Inter-American collective security. An attack on one would be an attack on all.
Many Latin Americans criticized the deal as Latin America got no economic aid along the lines of Marshall Plan in Europe.
Organization of American States (OAS): 1948, Bogota, Colombia. Inter-American cooperation agreed upon to coordinate military strategy.
Latin American nations demanded, and got, a promised policy of non-intervention written into the organization's charter.
SO WHAT CHANGED?
"After 1949, the Truman administration stopped issuing nuanced analyses of Latin America's political culture and started professing deep concern about the region. Latin Americans did not suddenly embrace radical ideas. And Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin, in the last years of his rule, did not unexpectedly evince interest in Latin America. Anti -Communist fears, both abroad and at home, overwhelmed the good judgment of U.S. officials. The Soviet Union successfully tested an atomic weapon in 1949, Mao Zedong and his Communist forces established the People's Republic of China in 1949, North Korea, with tacit support from Joseph Stalin, invaded South Korea in 1950. The global balance of power seemed to be turning against the United States. At home, unscrupulous politicians, led by Senator Joseph McCarthy (R-WI) and Representative Richard M. Nixon (R-CA), alleged that traitorous Communists operated within the U.S. government. The United States dragged Latin America into the Cold War."
Steven Rabe, THE KILLING ZONE
THE MILLER DOCTRINE
Truman named Edward R. Miller Jr as Assistant Secretary of Latin America Affairs
This led to a renewed focus on the Monroe doctrine and a refinement of the OAS charter.
The Miller Doctrine warned that "if the circumstances that led to the protective interventions by the United States should rise again today, the organized community of American states would be faced with the responsibility that the United States had once to assume alone:'
Non-intervention ideas incorporated into the OAS charter were not absolute; if a member state were threatened by Communist political aggression, the OAS would have to act for the common welfare.
"...the "Miller Doctrine" proved to be long-lasting feature of U.S. foreign policies. Latin Americans needed to understand their place in the world. They lived in the U.S. sphere of influence. Their duty was to support the United States in the apocalyptic struggle with the international Communist movement. Any deviance by a Latin American nation from the U.S. vision of the proper world order threatened U.S. security and the global balance of power. Latin Americans often lacked the political maturity to understand how the world worked. The United States had the right and responsibility to correct the international misbehavior of Latin Americans. This meant overthrowing suspect governments and bolstering right-wing tyrants who aped U.S. foreign policies"
Steven Rabe, THE KILLING ZONE
Though still considered less important than Asia and Europe, Latin America was now on the map as far as the Cold War was concerned. There was still no Marshall Plan for Latin America, but military aid to repressive governments began to flow.
WHY DID THE US & UN GET INVOLVED?
DEAN ACHESON'S PERIMETER SPEECH
Acheson was Secretary of State between 1948-53.
He was very important to forming the Marshall Plan and Cold War Policy under Truman.
Read the excerpt of the speech he gave to the National Press Club in January of 1949.
What is the main point of the speech?
Draw the perimeter that he speaks about on the map on the back.
"In a very real sense,the first real victory of the West in the Cold War was won in the bloody hills of central Korea."
"The only decisive outcome of the war was the precedent it set: that there could be a bloody and protracted conflict involving the nations armed with nuclear weapons and they could chose not to use them. The lesson was not lost and Vietnam would be next only this time the ending would be very different."
This situation was exactly what people had in mind when starting the UN.
The USSR could not veto action as they were boycotting the UN due to the UN's failure to give China's seat in the UN to the PRC
Truman had been waiting for a crisis to prove he & the Democrats were not soft on communism, to shore up defense of Chiang Kai Shek on Formosa, to ensure US bases would be built in Japan, and rearm America and NATO.
Use the link to view an animated map showing the military overview of the war.
DISCUSS IN GROUPS:
CONSIDERING TRUMAN'S POLICY OF CONTAINMENT, DOES ANYTHING STRIKE YOU AS STRANGE ABOUT THE COURSE OF THE KOREAN WAR?
WHY DID THE UNITED STATES TEMPORARILY ABANDON CONTAINEMENT FOR ROLLBACK?
"On June 26, the day after the assault, in a statement released at noon from the White House, the President formally extended the Truman Doctrine to the Pacific by pledging the United States to military intervention against any further expansion of Communist rule in Asia. He announced that he was extending military aid to the French, who were fighting Ho Chi Minh and the Viet Minh in Indochina, and to the Philippines, where the Huks continued to challenge the government. Truman also ordered the Seventh Fleet to "prevent any attack on Formosa," declaring that the determination of Formosa's future status "must await the restoration of security in the Pacific, a peace settlement with Japan, or consideration by the United Nations," America had thus become involved in the Chinese civil war, the Philippines' insurrection, and the war of national liberation in Indochina, in one day."
NOT JUST KOREA
"Truman's accomplishments were breathtaking. He had given the United States a thermonuclear bomb (March 1951) and rearmed Germany. He pushed through a peace treaty with Japan (signed in September 1951) that excluded the Russians and gave the Americans military bases, allowed for Japanese rearmament and unlimited industrialization, and encouraged a Japanese boom by dismissing British, Australian, Chinese, and other demands for reparations. Truman extended American bases around the world, hemming in both Russia and China. He had learned, in November of 1950, not to push beyond the iron and bamboo curtains, but he had made sure that if any Communist showed his head on the free side of the line, someone-usually an American-would be there to shoot him."
"There had to be a price. It was best summed up by Walter Millis, himself a Cold Warrior and a great admirer of Forrestal. “The Truman administration, Millis wrote, left behind it "an enormously expanded military establishment, beyond anything we had ever contemplated in time of peace .... It evoked a huge and apparently permanent armament industry, now wholly dependent ... on government contracts. The Department of Defense had become without question the biggest industrial management operation in the world; the great private operations, like General Motors, du Pont, the leading airplane manufacturers had assumed positions of monopoly power. . . ." The administration produced thermonuclear supergiant weapons, families of lesser atomic bombs, guided missiles, the B-52 jet bomber, new supercarriers and tanks and other heavy weapons. It had increased the risk of war while making war immeasurably more dangerous."
But Truman's stature also rose in subsequent years because it became easier for both scholars and the public to discern and appreciate his significant contributions. Truman's conduct of American foreign policy deserves special commendation. The President and his advisers recognized that the Soviet Union threatened the political and military balance of power, as well as the healthy economic intercourse, that favored the United States and its allies in the aftermath of World War II. Truman responded to the Soviet challenge with a range of political, diplomatic, military, and economic initiatives designed to contain Soviet power and to construct an American-led bulwark against communism. In large measure, American officials followed Truman's approach to U.S.-Soviet relations until the end of the Cold War in the early 1990s. Several Truman foreign policy programs remain central to America's international posture even today. Commitments to Israel and South Korea are still hallmarks of U.S. policy towards the Middle East and Asia, respectively. Likewise, the United States remains the prime member of NATO.
"Harry Truman: Impact and Legacy." American President A Reference Resource. Miller Center: University of Virginia, n.d. Web. 17 June 2015.
"Contrary to prevailing views, however, I believe that Truman's policy making was shaped by his parochial and nationalistic heritage. This was reflected in his uncritical belief in the superiority of American values and political-economic interests, his conviction that the Soviet Union and Communism were the root cause of international strife, and his inability to comprehend Asian politics and nationalism. Truman's parochialism also caused him to disregard contrary views, to engage in simplistic analogizing, to show little ability to comprehend the basis for other nations' policies, and to demonize those leaders or nations who would not bend to the will of the U.S. Consequently, his foreign policy leadership intensified Soviet-American conflict, hastened division of Europe, and brought tragic intervention in Asian civil wars and a generation of Sino-American enmity. "
Offner, Arnold. "How Do Revisionists Evaluate the Administration of Harry Truman?" History News Network. Gorge Mason University, n.d. Web. 17 June 2015.
Ambrose, Stephen E., and Douglas Brinkley. Rise to Globalism: American Foreign Policy since 1938. New York: Penguin, 1997. Print.
Ambrose, Stephen E., and Douglas Brinkley. Rise to Globalism: American Foreign Policy since 1938. New York: Penguin, 1997. Print.
Truman worked under the assumption that victory in Korea, among other places, would be attainable without significant losses.
MacArthur and his soldiers did well at pushing the North Koreans back after the landing at Inchon.
As they moved closer to the 38th parallel, both Truman and MacArthur saw an opportunity to rid the North of Communism.
The UN and the Joint Chiefs of Staff approved this move, though Truman wanted to avoid provoking the Chinese.
The Chinese were provoked and the counter attack pushed the Americans back into the South.
The subsequent American counter to the counter attack of the original American counterattack to the initial attack in the first place left the two sides back where they started. MacArthur wanted to keep going.
He did. He got fired.
The general wanted to reunify Korea, unleash Chiang for an attack on the mainland, and fight Communism in Asia rather than in Europe. "Here in Asia," he said, "is where the Communist conspirators have elected to make their play for global conquest. Here we fight Europe's war with arms while the diplomats there still fight it with words."
CNN's Cold War Documentaries
WHAT PRECIPITATED THE CRISIS
The peninsula had been divided following WWII
Syngman Rhee and the capitalist South were supported by the Americans.
Kim desired unification under Communism.
Fearing a world war, Stalin would not allow this.
This arguably had a destabilizing effect on the situation, as North & South no longer restrained
In fact, US soldiers left the peninsula in 48-49 and the Soviets scaled down their presence as well.
Kim emboldened by victory of the CCP & pushed Stalin to approve a move against the South.
Eventually Stalin agreed. Why?
Kim Il Sung & the Communist North were supported by the Soviets & eventually the CCP
The US had recently approved a change of strategy in foreign policy. In 1950, it was decided to rely less on psychological, economic, and political means of containment and rely more on militarized system of alliances and arms races
National Security Council document 68 (NSC-68) outlined this policy, which influenced significantly the decision to launch the "police action"
The US riled up support in the UN for intervention
SO WHY DID STALIN AGREE TO LET KIM INVADE?
"if they aren't going to fight to keep Chiang in power, why would the fight for Syngman Rhee?"
"This new A-bomb is increasing my confidence!"
"with the Chinese Communists in power and Mao on board, there is support should things go wrong"
"Kim has assured me that victory will be very quick!"
"Sure, why not!"
" I am sure the Americans will stay out, especially after Acheson's security speech!"
"this will distract the Chinese from the Taiwan invasion that could really risk war!"
" I am sure the Americans will commit to war and lose significant military resources as a result!"
"Chinese involvement will weaken them and keep me the leader of international communism!"