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Curriculum Development - Chapter 6

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Franziska Geyer

on 2 October 2012

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Transcript of Curriculum Development - Chapter 6

Elementary School Programs and Issues Janette
Franziska Let's get started !! :) 3)Terrorism (domestic and international)
4)Cultural diversity
5)All inclusive for all children Pre-K-5 programs still exist today but find themselves under new burdens 1)No New funding 2)National disasters 1)Open Classrooms
3)Team teaching
4)Extended enrichment Gone are the 1960s classroom experimentation 1)Free elementary school was an experiment in the USA

2)There was no national education system established. (There still is not one)

3)1642-1647 First known compulsory law enacted in MA

Why? To teach young men to read bible phrases and avoid the clutches of Satan

4)For the next 100 years Teachers nation wide used the textbook:

“New England Primer”
A)It taught reading and number skills using Bible verses
B)It also provided the means of school discipline. (beat the devil out of them) ELEMENTARY SCHOOL HISTORY The idea of choice in schools has become quite appealing
because it is consistent with our perception of the Democratic Process •Thomas Jefferson and James Madison rallied children to become good citizens

•1746-1827 Johann Heinrich Pestolozzi saw children as organic learners and not mechanical learners

•1800s Prussians began using his ideas

•1837 Horace Mann saw the Prussian system and brought it to MA

•1876 Free public education and the outline by Mann accepted nationwide Timelines and some famous names •1876 to 1930s Industrial Revolution
•1918 WW1
•1930 Standardized Tests
•1920s-30s Dewey “Democratic Way of Life” and “learning by doing” Described as the progressive education movement lead by John Dewey, George Counts, Harold Rugg and others. Expansion and more reforms: Sputnik

Thus began:
NSF; National School Foundation
NDEA; National Defense Education Administration

Suddenly teachers were expected to teach subjects they new nothing about and were not ready for Until 1957 : What happened? Tug of war going on in our past and still in our present Organizing the curriculum •Religion
•Political Doctrine
•Industrial learning
•Free Kindergarten
•Pre-K 3 and 4 year olds
•Head start
•After School
•Teacher Aids
•Daycare in High School
•Prenatal Training
•Free Lunch, Breakfast, weekend meals How many of you learned phonics? Whole language vs Phonics

The debate No national system

13,000 different school systems with only a basic outline of what others are doing

So everyone is trying to determine appropriate Elementary School Curriculum Content Selection of Content What is everyone trying to do today? tttt Reading > controversial and political
Writing > More time is being spend teaching concept and less time on penmanship
Speaking > too many corrections... not helpful!
Spelling > has 2 methods Invented and memorization

Mathematics today is in attempt to teach understanding of concepts and reasoning

•1957 Sputnik
•1960s Understanding of process instead of facts
•1990 GHW Bush first in the world by 2000
•Now tttt Social Studies > learn personal and social interactions
> Teach critical thinking & political citizenship
> Geographic understandings
> Positive self concept (Ever hear of manifest destiny?)

Geography. In 1996 national geographic donated 40 million dollars to help develop better materials

Health and Physical Education > H- is to learn all aspects of healthful living
> PE- believe activities lead to better coordination and psychomotor skills

Aids Education (yep)

School Health Program

The Arts > Include visual and performing
> Bring together numerous skills and learning
> First thought to be only aesthetic or “feel good”.
> Later discovered helps in many cognitive learning
> There is no line between intellect and emotions

Mrs. Crawford art teacher Organizing for Instruction Because the middle school is designed to accommodate the broad needs of the adolescent learner, middle school curriculum is both flexible and interdisciplinary (Unlike high school organization, which is inflexible and departmentalized) Let's ask our book!! Why is this interdisciplinary approach better? Interdisciplinary Middle School Curriculum Teachers can better understand the differences among individual students when they are being observed and evaluated by more than one person Block scheduling allows the teacher greater flexibility in grouping to accommodate large- and small group instruction, remedial work, and independent study Team structure allows students to identify themselves with a smaller school within a school, while also allowing for more flexibility with field trips and scheduling without interfering with overall school programming Team curriculum structuring offers more assistance to new teachers and more collaboration among the more veteran educators, which leads to greater potential for professional growth Building use is improved, with large- and small- group space utilized as well as typical classrooms Furthermore, the book recommends structuring middle school class periods in shorter teaching blocks.
Because shorter class periods make it easier for teachers to coordinate planning periods, which is "a major element of the middle school concept" According to the text, many veteran teachers still prefer the old secondary program model
However, a more "systematic" approach is beginning to be implemented to counter this preference, with the new in-service program designed specifically for middle school education In-service Programs The new training program, called the Wiles-Bondi Teachers Training Teachers model, is peer-based and has been adopted by the NEA.

This model "eliminates the need for outside consultants who entertain teachers with stories and leave them wondering, What do I do Monday?"

The book says this program "practical and delivered in school settings by teachers," therefore gaining "the approval of middle school teachers" Comprehensive Planning for Middle Schools, or
How to Build an Excellent Middle School in 18 to 24 Months 1.) Analysis: Awareness and Study
2.) Involvement: Educating the Community
3.)commitment: Making sure Everyone's On Board
4.) Funding: Getting Extra Funds for the Middle School
5.) Resources: (Over)budgeting for development
6.) Personnel: Intensive Training of Staff
7.) Detailed Planning: Develop that Curriculum!
8.) Construction or Conversion of Site
9.) Opening of the Middle School Steps to Building a Middle School While ever-changing gadgets distort school budgets, "technology has also piqued the curiosity of the better teachers, who have recognized that the Internet may provide space-age learning tools if the power of the instrument can be harnessed." Our Author's View of the Role of Technology in the Middle School A "space-age" learning tool from the 50's How to Use Technology Successfully in Middle Schools Select materials that will hold the students' individual interest Use other materials besides the internet, as continual screen viewing may "irritate" the eyes of some students The internet should "supplement teacher lessons, not vice-versa" Utilize lesson plans and teaching materials recommended by state and national agencies, as there are many great subject area plans on the Internet Be aware of the abundance of false or inaccurate information on the Net Watch this video for more tips on how to evaluate if you have a successful middle school Children with Attention Deficit Disorder Diverse Needs of Children ADD / ADHD - what are the symptoms? Children from Impoverished Families The younger the family the poorer Majority is living in in semi-isolation across the country 2006: 200,000 children were homeless each night Often no parental and poor health care ... Children from Different Cultures Many languages / Many cultures / Different Backgrounds Lack of teachers who speak the children's language Peer Tutoring / Buddy System Children with Disabilities Education of All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 ( Law 94-142) Revised ESL programs Free and appropriate education for all students between 3 - 21 Regular classroom as preferred environment Including the children in ALL extracurricular activities INCLUSION Gifted Students Other Students ...
The "normal" ones? Learning Styles and Systems Cooperative Learning Grade Level Retention Grouping students within a grade or level Organization and Grouping
in the Elementary School Vertical Horizontal movement of
students from
grade to grade
or level to level Continuous
Progress vertical grouping Multiage Same teacher for 2 or more years Looping Grouping
Strategies Not enough structure for some students Age Cohort - no matter if they achieved
grade-level expectations Holistic Flexible Integrated We are a family :) High self-esteem Top students not getting encouragement Grouping with an age span with more than one year two or more ages teacher team wide variety of abilities more cooperation less competition small classes hard for same-sex / same age friendships frustrated young students / non-challenged older students more teacher planning no beginning-of -the year transition time Family Feel Enhanced learning what if you have a "bad" teacher ??? Year-round Schools So... What Works????? Grade structure -
Developmental levels K-3 K-5 Elementary School Early Childhood 4-5 Late Childhood Introduction to school
Beginning Skills
Beginning Learning
Introduction to Disciplines back-to-the-basics Multiage programs Nongraded Schools Team Teaching continuous progress programs Assessment Multicultural Education Technology Middle School Head Body Body Body Body Body Body Body Body Body Body Body Body Hey! We needed that!
The rising of the Middle School Structure. Grade levels 5th-8th. Variety of factors led to the creation of the middle school structure system starting in 1910. The middle school teacher Functions of a middle school The identity of a middle school The middle school student The middle school teacher Middle school programs *Providing a program especially for 10-14 year old students especially taking into consideration their growth and development process. 1910 the concept of a middle school (junior high school consisting of grades 5-8, ages 10-14) would be developed and taken into a serious consideration. *The transition of introducing a new curriculum to students (sputnik). *A solution to the overcrowding of schools K-8. *Providing much needed innovations and instruction for students of the age 10-14. The Functions of a middle school Middle schools were needed for several reasons: A unique program to adapt to the needs of early adolescent youth
Opportunities for exploration and the development of fundamental skills while still being sensitive to individual needs of the student and individual learning patterns.
Educators who understand the students needs, interest, background, emotions, stress etc
A climate that is able to adapt to preteens and help them foster their abilities, intellect, social as well as physical developments.
A climate that enables students to develop abilities, find facts, weigh evidence, draw conclusions, determine values and keeping students open-minded.
Facilitiesthat allow students and educators the opportunity to grow and achieve goals to their fullest possibilities. The need for a more distinct school was prevalent during the 20th century. Upon the creation of a "new school" it was important that the system that was established was totally separate from the traditional K-8 system and the high school system. Middle School Identity In order to create such a system the following had to be taken into consideration:
Absence of the little high school approach
Absence on the "star" system
The use of instructional methods being age appropriate
Cooperative planning and term teaching
Student grouping
Increased physical moving
Training teachers for the teaching of emerging adolescents. It's important to note that students from the ages of 10-14 go through dramatic changes. These are changes that affect the students behavior, learning process, interaction as well as intellectual abilities. The Middle School Student Middle school teachers are looked at as having a unique teaching style and perspective in order to be able to teach middle school students. Because students are rapidly changing it is imperative that teachers are adaptable and sensitive to all issues pertaining to younger students. Middle school teacher Programs: Things that make middle schools go round :) Programs are to help with the transitional phase between elementary school and high school. These programs are meant to provided students with learning experiences that stimulate intellectual growth, social development as well as introduce the student to a new aspect of the school structure and curriculum that they might not be familiar with. Advisory programs
Physical Education Programs
Intramural Programs
Exploratory Programs
Special needs
Community Education Programs Why Middle School? Language Arts : Curriculum Content
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