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Digital Video Projects in the Classroom

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David MacKinnon

on 1 August 2014

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Transcript of Digital Video Projects in the Classroom

A Good Way to Bridge the Gap
Hofer & Owens (2005) suggest that the current state of technology use in education is severely disconnected from the rest of the world. While schools have made improvements, I still believe that this is true for the majority of them.

Hofer & Owens (2005)believe that digital video projects are one way to start 'bridging the gap'. Digital video projects can promote student creativity, provide authentic learning experiences and are naturally student-centred activities. A study they conducted showed that while taking part in digital video projects students showed a high interest, strong analyses of the material they found, and critical reading skills through their interpretation of the content.

One of the key issues with this divide is a lack of education for the teachers. Different technology is thrown at teachers without proper training; resulting in inefficient or even improper use. Hofer & Owens (2005) use the analogy of the hammer and a nail to emphasize this issue. If you give a teacher a hammer (a new piece of technology), everything looks like a nail (they try to use it everywhere). Instead we need to critically look at where it might be best used.
Videography and Content
Videography should be used as an instructional strategy and not as the purpose of the lesson. Connections to content can be fostered through a clear framework for assessment of and for learning. Opportunities exist for the integration of multiple curriculum and the fostering of students creativity which is traditionally dismissed as inconsequential.
Assessment may be a pedagogically complex when trying evaluate a video project. There needs to be a balance between student creativity and suitability of content. While we are willing to give students as much freedom as possible to be creative with their synthesis of images and video; a criteria needs to be set that not only showcases student knowledge but is allow appropriate to be shown in school. In the same way teachers educate their students about their target audience while writing, the same model can be applied during video production.

Because a video production has many aspects to it, teachers must provide scaffolding to the variety to associated tasks. Students have different skills when dealing with technology, research, editing, and content synthesizing in video production and in order to lesson the skill gap; teachers must consider that some students are experts in organization of content (images, sounds, videoclips) while others struggle; therefore, teachers must provide the appropriate level of scaffolding.
Lim, J., Pellett, H. H., & Pellett, T. (2009). Integrating digital video technology in the classroom: Digital-video assignments enhance experiential learning. JOPERD--the Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 80(6), 40-55.

This study is split into three sections. The first section is a review of the literature that supports the benefits of video production. The second part considers the technology requirements and costs for video production. The third section outlines 5 general steps required to successfully integrate video production in the classroom and also offers suggestions on how to evaluate student produced videos. The punctum of the research is its strong emphasis on the affordances of video production and how video production helps students “develop a range of higher-order cognitive skills” (55).

Authentic and Motivating Learning Experiences
Kearney and Shuck (2006) analyzed data from digital video projects from five schools across Australia. They found the following positive impacts:

learning situated in the real-world
students did not see the project as a form of studying
students were engaged while watching their peers' videos and motivated them at the same time
tasks required a high level of student iniative
A Range of Ways Video is Being Used in Schools
10 Steps Teachers Should use to plan Video Production in the Classroom:
1. Become familiar with the software first
2. Identify with the class the topic and the audience, focus on questions like
"Why would someone want to know this information? Who is most likely to watch this? How can I make the information interesting to my intended audience?"
3. Take the time in class to go over the technical aspects and equipment with students- don't assume they know how to use video equiptment
4. Review research skills if needed-
What is their BIG question? How will they answer it?
5. Have students come up with a Pre-Production plan. Look for key steps like; Brainstorming. script writing, story boarding, scheduling, props/wardrobe needs, and intended location
6. Reflect on Pre- production plan and ask :
Have I made the best plan that will target my intended audience and answer my BIG question? Can I foresee any areas that will cause problems?
7. Have student make a detailed production plan that includes; timelines, tech rehearsal, videotaping, and anything that will need producing like original soundtracks or graphics
8. Reflect on Production plan and ask:
Is my timeline for my video realistic? Do I need to simplify or add to my plan in order to improve my final product? What do i expect to be the hardest part and how will I handle it?
9. Make the video
10. Share, Reflect, Assess: After sharing their video students should be given the opportunity to look back at all their stages and plans and reflect on if they achieved their goal. Self assessment is an important part of the process.

Sending videos to sister schools across the globe
Designing animations in science
Filming real-life phenomena in math
Video news items
Displaying human virtues
Developing metacognitive skills
Drama presentations
Making advertisements
Making infomercials
Adapted from Kearney and Schuck's study (2006)
Constructivism in Digital Video Projects
Tyner, K. (1994). Video in the classroom: A tool for reform. Arts Education Policy Review, 96(1), 18-26.


Although a bit dated, what Tyner has to say regarding video production in the classroom is still relevant. The main point she argues is video production/technology can be the bridge between constructivist approaches and school reform. She outlines the differences between traditional and constructivist approaches to video in the classroom. At the time this article was written media education was seen as an after-thought in education. From a historical perspective it is nice to see how corporations, politics, and economics came into play for video production to be considered a viable tool to integrate into the classroom. When seen in the larger context of multi-literacies the affordances of video production does appear to be a strong bridge between constructivist approaches and school reform.
Fortuna, C. (2010). LIGHTS! CAMERA! ACTION. Knowledge Quest, 38(4), 10.

Carolyn’s article highlights the intellectual shifts of 16 year olds who moved from traditional notions of literacy (e.g. print) to a deeper understanding of the literacy involved with viewing and producing videos. Her article focuses on the compositional structure of the new form of “print” (i.e. video production) and describes some of the necessary “grammar” by which to create meaning in video and to by which to approach viewing it with a critical eye. Her work suggests that students need to learn these skills at school and to be able to apply these skills outside of school. She provides a few steps and suggestions on how to help students make this intellectual shift.

Darling-Hammond, L., & McLaughlin, M. (2011) Policies That Support Professional Development in an Era of Reform. Phi Delta Kappan, 92, 81-92. Retrieved July 11, 2014, from https://webserver.colegiobolivar.edu.co/Forum2014/Documents/Magnusson/PROF%20DEVEL%20IN%20AN%20ERA%20of%20REFORM%20DARLING-HAMMOND.pdf

This article provides an in depth look at the conditions that are best suited when giving professional development to teachers. The article examines teachers as learners and the various influencers in a school environment- peers, administration, and district level policy makers that affect the acquisition and longevity of knowledge and new skills for the classroom. This article would be of the most use to those who have limited experiences teaching teachers and who are looking to provide useful and insightful professional development.

Elliott, S. N. (1995). Creating Meaningful Performance Assessments. ERIC Digest, E5, 71-73

While seeming a bit dated, this is still considered one of the leading articles on assessing performance based products. It puts forth for considerations of validity of assessment, types of products that could be assessed and ways to incorporate learner/student contributions when creating the assessment piece or rubric. Teacher questions are also put forth to help those new to the profession make sure they are not misusing assessment or having too much influence over the final product.

Gentle, M. (2013) 10 Things You Should Know When Starting a Video Production Class. School Wide Video. Retrieved July 11, 2014, from http://schoolvideonews.com/Resources/What-to-Teach

Gentle makes taking on the task of Video Production in one’s classroom more manageable and less daunting in this starter article. Looking at the key points to keep in mind and what not to lose sight of when using video production for the first time is most helpful to both educators who are using video production for the first time and to those who may just need a reminder for the key components. This article is part of a larger database that links to developed video production lesson plans and ideas for activities.


Sebastian, B.( 2003) Video Production in the Foreign Language Classroom: Some Practical Ideas. The Internet TESL Journal , 9. Retrieved July 11, 2014, from http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Brooke-Video.html

Sebastian’s article focus’ is on the specific use and application of video production in classes where non-native languages are being taught. Many of these applications can also be used to cross over in various contents, the attention is placed on the empowering new language learners and also giving more avenues to help self assess their skill acquisition in a realistic and authentic setting.

Vandervelde, J. (2011, January 1). Video Project Rubric. Video Project Rubric. Retrieved July 21, 2014, from https://www2.uwstout.edu/content/profdev/rubrics/videorubric.html

In this example of a rubric that can be used for Video Production, Vandervelde gives multiple examples of varying levels of completion and how they can be assessed. Also included in this rubric is a link to many other rubrics and articles on authentic assessment in video production. It is suggested that this rubric be used as a guide to help beginner and experienced teachers form assessment strategies and expectations for their students, with their students.
Hathaway, D., & Norton, P. (2012). Video production and classroom instruction: Bridging the academies and the realities of practice in teacher education. Video Production and Classroom Instruction: Bridging the Academies and the Realities of Practice in Teacher Education, 20(2), 127-149. Retrieved from http://www.editlib.org.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/p/36211/

This article presents action research done on 16 participating teacher-learners who are seeking to include video production as part of their regular practice as they experience the process of video production themselves. The researchers aim to provide teacher-learners with a five step strategy to aid in video production implementation: 1) connection to content 2) video production as instructional strategy only 3) uses critical and reflective thinking 4)authentic problem 5) and uses a design process. In summary, the action research reflection of the teacher-learners concludes that video production as part of teacher practice is easier to implement with design guidelines.

McKenny, S., & Voogt, J. (2011). Facilitating digital video production in the language arts curriculum. Atralasian Journal of Technology, 27(4), 709-726. Retrieved from http://gw2jh3xr2c.search.serialssolutions.com/?SS_searchTypeJournal=yes&V=1.0&L=GW2JH3XR2C&S=AC_T_B&C=australian journal

A dual research study between two primary aged classes compares the effectiveness of a learner workbook in classes that incorporate video production within language arts curriculum. The workbook includes seven modules specifically tailored to take the younger learner through a proper message design process while meeting national targets for language acquisition. The researchers data includes follow-up questionnaires and classroom observations with classroom teachers and students comparing quality and collaboration within student production groups. Improved student engagement, quality and collaboration among students were noted. Overall, the implementation of a learner workbook improves quality and collaboration in younger video production groups.
Robinson, K. (Artist) (2006). How schools kill creativity [Web]. Retrieved from http://www.ted.com/talks/ken_robinson_says_schools_kill_creativity

This YouTube video is a twenty minute discussion by Sir Ken Robinson on how education is killing creativity in our students. Key ideas from his discussion touch on the origin of education in line with the rise of industrialized nations. Within these societies creativity is bypassed in lieu of a rigid intellectual endeavor where students are disconnected from learning as part of a whole. He emphasizes creativity should be considered just as important as numeracy and literacy. He concludes that there are multiple forms of intelligence and that educators need to encourage this type of holistic learning.
Spires, Hiller A.; Hervey, Lisa G.; Morris, Gwynn. (2012) Energizing Project-Based Inquiry: Middle-Grade Students Read, Write, and Create Videos. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 55 (6), p483-493.


This article examines ways in which creating videos can be employed as a motivating factor to aid in the engagement of middle school students in project based learning, through technology use, specifically video production. In the article, the authors argue that assignments such as video production allow students to showcase their reading and writing skills along with their understanding of content-based knowledge. The article explores pedagogical changes, multimodal literacy, and inquiry based learning; along with showing teachers ways of scaffolding materials to help students in the construction of knowledge. Finally, the authors introduce a pilot project focused on student led video production of education films.
Hernández-Ramos, P. (2007). Aim, shoot ready! Future teachers learn to 'do' video. British Journal of Educational Technology, 38(1), 33-41. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2006.00600.x

This article introduces a workshop for preservice teachers using digital video in their classrooms. The authors give a framework for the workshop; which allows its students to shoot, edit and present. What makes this article good is that they also back up their choices with well-thought out rationale; not only in regard to designing the workshop, but also for using digital video at all. The article makes an excellent case for using digital video in preservice teacher training with the hopes that it might increase their confidence in using it in their classrooms in the future.

Hofer, M. & Owings-Swan, K. (2005). Digital moviemaking-The harmonization of technology, pedagogy and content. International Journal of Technology in Teaching and Learning, 1(2), 102-110. Retrieved from: http://www.sicet.org/journals/ijttl/issue0502/Hofer.Vol1.Iss2.pdf

The authors of this article discuss the current state technology use in education as severely disconnected from the rest of the world; specifically pointing out a need to analyse where it might be useful before we simply implement it. The authors then make an argument that digital video projects might help ease this disconnect and promote meaningful learning experiences. This article is good because not only does it address the underlying pedagogy, it also discusses an actual project where digital video was used. This article makes a strong case for using digital video in the classroom by highlighting all of the positive skills required during the process.
Kearney, M. & Schuck, S. (2006). Spotlight on authentic learning: Student-developed digital video projects. Australian Journal of Educational Technology, 22(2), 189-208. Retrieved from: http://www.ascilite.org.au/ajet/ajet22/kearney1.html

The authors discuss their study of digital video tasks occurring in five schools across Australia. Specifically the authors look to demonstrate the positive effects of using digital video projects on the learning in the classroom. This study is good because it provides real-world evidence of the good digital video projects can have. The study uses real student responses to help further its case. Although the authors are quite positive about what is happening in the schools currently, they make suggestions for further improvements in the use of digital video within the classroom.

Shewbridge, W. & Berge, Z. (2004). The role of theory and technology in learning video production: The challenge of change. International Journal on E-Learning, 3(1), 31-39. Retrieved from: http://www.thefreelibrary.com/The+role+of+theory+and+technology+in+learning+video+production%3A+the...-a0116143486

This article looks at different approaches to learning video production and theories involved addressing how it might be taught. The authors point out that the hands-on, learner centred, interdisciplinary, collaborative, and inquiry-based nature of video production make it a constructivist style activity. This study is good because it also defines the characteristics of video production; including the authentic nature and constructivist principles of the activity. This article provides a strong theoretical basis for video production and advice for how to implement projects of this nature.

Shewbridge & Berge (2004) point out that the hands-on, learner centred, interdisciplinary, collaborative, and inquiry-based nature of video production naturally make it a constructivist style activity. Central to constructivist based activities is the idea that students learn by doing. The children see this style of project as an opportunity to play; a strong motivator for children and helps build their confidence. Reflection is key to the learning process as well, so the authors suggest that the group reviews the video afterwards. This allows the producer's peers an opportunity to critique their video and hopefully allow the producer to regain perspective.



According to Lim, Pellett, and Pellet (2009) Student produced video work helps to develop the following social/cognitive skills:

problem solving collaborative work
knowledge building communication
decision making research skills
story-telling writing
planning delegating
presentation aesthetics
According to Lim, Pellett, and Pellett, video production encourages "student collaboration and authentic application" (2009). This is in-line with what Tyner discussed back in 1994. According to Tyner "as students construct and deconstruct video in an inquiry-based environment, they can practice asking questions...the important thing is not to have the right answer, but to know how to ask questions that lead to reasoned hypotheses. This lends tremendous support to the findings of Lim, Pellet, and Pellet; video production helps students form and use higher-order cognitive skills in a practical, hands-on approach. Tyner also believed that video production in the classroom would also bridge the gap between calls for school reform and constructivist approaches. While it is doubtful that videography can play such a tremendous role, the application, affordances, and benefits of integrating videography into the curriculum are incredible. The following video just one of the many affordances of videography.






According to Fortuna (1994) an "explicit instruction in the grammar of film" can lead to new levels of interpretation and creation of videography. Her goal in training and teaching her students was to help them connect "academic to public literacies". Being able to connect academic to public literacies allows students to read and recontextualize their world in meaningful ways. It is for this reason that Fortuna, along with Tyner and Lim, Ellett, and Ellett believe that videography could be the way "into new thinking about new literacies as serious educational discourse" (22). Below is a video created by one of her former students.
Lim, Pellet, and Pellet's 5 Steps for students:
1) Development: this includes goal setting, production team formation, idea development, and script production
2) Preproduction: this typically involves storyboarding and planning the shoot
4) Production: this is the filming phase
3) Post-production: this is the editing phase
5)Distribution: this phase determines the audience

Modelling and Scaffolding
5 steps to help guide proper modelling and scaffolding for the incorporation of video production into their classroom. The process includes:

1. Connection to Content
2. Video Production as instructional strategy
3. Seeks to answer and authentic problem
4. Video Production is a tool to teach critical thinking about content
5. Guided by a design process (ie. technical skills)
Works Cited
Bresnick, E. (n.d.). Vi Hart - Behind the Scenes and Interview. YouTube. Retrieved July 20, 2014, from

Darling-Hammond, L., & McLaughlin, M. (2011) Policies That Support Professional Development in an Era of Reform. Phi Delta Kappan, 92, 81-92. Retrieved July 11, 2014, from https://webserver.colegiobolivar.edu.co/Forum2014/Documents/Magnusson/PROF%20DEVEL%20IN%20AN%20ERA%20of%20REFORM%20DARLING-HAMMOND.pdf

Elliott, S. N. (1995). Creating Meaningful Performance Assessments. ERIC Digest, E5, 71-73

Fortuna, C. (2010). LIGHTS! CAMERA! ACTION. Knowledge Quest, 38(4), 10.

Gentle, M. (2013) 10 Things You Should Know When Starting a Video Production Class. School Wide Video. Retrieved July 11, 2014, from http://schoolvideonews.com/Resources/What-to-Teach

Hart, V. (n.d.). How To Make A Video About How To Make A Video About How To Make A Video About How To Make a Video.... YouTube. Retrieved July 20, 2014, from

Hathaway, D., & Norton, P. (2012). Video production and classroom instruction: Bridging the academies and the realities of practice in teacher education. Video Production and Classroom Instruction: Bridging the Academies and the Realities of Practice in Teacher Education, 20(2), 127-149. Retrieved from http://www.editlib.org.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/p/36211/

Hernández-Ramos, P. (2007). Aim, shoot ready! Future teachers learn to 'do' video. British Journal of Educational Technology, 38(1), 33-41. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2006.00600.x

Hofer, M. & Owings-Swan, K. (2005). Digital moviemaking-The harmonization of technology, pedagogy and content. International Journal of Technology in Teaching and Learning, 1(2), 102-110. Retrieved from: http://www.sicet.org/journals/ijttl/issue0502/Hofer.Vol1.Iss2.pdf

Kearney, M. & Schuck, S. (2006). Spotlight on authentic learning: Student-developed digital video projects. Australian Journal of Educational Technology, 22(2), 189-208. Retrieved from: http://www.ascilite.org.au/ajet/ajet22/kearney1.html

Lim, J., Pellett, H. H., & Pellett, T. (2009). Integrating digital video technology in the classroom: Digital-video assignments enhance experiential learning. JOPERD--the Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 80(6), 40-55.

Maudisme. (n.d.). Gone. YouTube. Retrieved July 20, 2014, from

McKenny, S., & Voogt, J. (2011). Facilitating digital video production in the language arts curriculum. Atralasian Journal of Technology, 27(4), 709-726. Retrieved from http://gw2jh3xr2c.search.serialssolutions.com/?SS_searchTypeJournal=yes&V=1.0&L=GW2JH3XR2C&S=AC_T_B&C=australian journal

n.a. What is Film Theory? | Department of Film Theory | Scriptcastle.com. (n.d.).YouTube. Retrieved July 20, 2014, from

Robinson, K. (Artist) (2006). How schools kill creativity [Web]. Retrieved from http://www.ted.com/talks/ken_robinson_says_schools_kill_creativity

Sebastian, B.( 2003) Video Production in the Foreign Language Classroom: Some Practical Ideas. The Internet TESL Journal , 9. Retrieved July 11, 2014, from http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Brooke-Video.html

Shewbridge, W. & Berge, Z. (2004). The role of theory and technology in learning video production: The challenge of change. International Journal on E-Learning, 3(1), 31-39. Retrieved from: http://www.thefreelibrary.com/The+role+of+theory+and+technology+in+learning+video+production%3A+the...-a0116143486

Spires, Hiller A.; Hervey, Lisa G.; Morris, Gwynn. (2012) Energizing Project-Based Inquiry: Middle-Grade Students Read, Write, and Create Videos. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 55 (6), p483-493.

Tyner, K. (1994). Video in the classroom: A tool for reform. Arts Education Policy Review, 96(1), 18-26.

Vandervelde, J. (2011, January 1). Video Project Rubric. Video Project Rubric. Retrieved July 21, 2014, from https://www2.uwstout.edu/content/profdev/rubrics/videorubric.html
Elliot puts forth various methods in this article that teachers should use to help produce authentic assessment. Some of the majors factors Elliot explains is meaningful and timely feedback, student input on both the assignment criteria and the method of assessment and the importance of finding a meaningful and engaging method for students to interact with the assignments. Video production meets all these factors, as well as others mentioned in the article. There is also strong mention of the importance of having a strong connection to curriculum and the assignment being assessed should be enhancing the experience between the learner and the content, not just a tool to use to distract from learning. Video production ties in strongly with this element as well, when used properly.
The strengths of this rubric are in at it separates the idea of Video Production into
Research (notes and citations)
Story Board
Content and Organization
Video Continuity/ Editing
Audio Edit
Lighting
Camera Techniques (Exposure/Focus)
Graphics
Copyright
Moving Images
Timing

Then, for further clarification their are points, descriptions and examples given for each of the four assigned levels; Exemplary, Proficient, Partially Proficient, Unsatisfactory.

This Is just one example of a rubric, but a strong example that covers many angles and aspects of what students would need to consider when participating in a Video Production assignment.
Teachers who teach in second language aquisition classes have been using Video Production on small scales early on. The ability for students to see themselves speaking another language helps with confidence in their ability to continue in that language. Video production has also been a popular tool in language classrooms for some time because it allows students to have a space to interact with the language in a way that they cannot do unless they go to a location where that language is spoken. However, up until recently, the video production in language classrooms has been very basic and not always used for direct assessment or evaluation. Still, there is much to learn from these early beginnings of video production examples.
Annotated Bibliographies
DIGITAL VIDEO PROJECTS IN THE CLASSROOM
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