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History of Ancient Rome
Transcript of History of Ancient Rome
The Romans won and destroyed the City of Carthage in 202 BC this humiliation was witnessed by the King's young son... ROME IS EXPANDING ITS TERRITORIES HANNIBAL ROMAN REPUBLIC
WAS CREATED HISTORY
ROME 753 BC The Capitoline she-wolf with the boys Romulus and Remus. Museo Nuovo in the Palazzo dei Conservatori, Rome. Romulus
& Remus Rome was founded at the bend
of the river Tiber 800 BC Etruscan Civilization Lived in Etruria, modern day Tuscany The Ogres decided who will be king. They set the twins apart on two hill tops and waited for a sign from the gods. Romulus killed Remus and became Rome's first king. Rome, in order to populate became a sanctuary for the indigent, exiled, and unwanted Rape of Sabine The Rape of the Sabine Women (between 1627 & 1629) Pietro Berretini The Rape of the Sabine Women by Giambologna 5th Century
BC Rome has become a province of Etrusca Servius Tullius CENSUS 509 BC - Allowed the organization of its population.
- From this, taxes, duties and privileges could be listed. A 16th century depiction of Servius Tullius. Soldiers were chosen to protect the kingdom LEGION Roman LUCRETIA BRUTUS organized an attack and overthrew the
Etruscans Res Publica the affairs of Rome belong to the people SENATUS POPULUSQUE ROMANUS 4th Century
BC ROME WAS ATTACKED
BY THE GAULS Under oath, each man told his name, address, social rank, family members, servants, tenants, and property to the registrar. PUNIC
WARS 261 - 146 BC The Romans copied an abandoned Carthaginian Ship, and created a fleet. In 241 BC, they won the naval battle and captured the islands of Sicily and Sardinia The Carthaginian King was forced to sign a treaty surrendering his kingdom's treasury. Hannibal led his army in 218 BC across the Alps and attacked Rome. Battle after battle Rome was defeated. in the Battle of Cannae, Hannibal, though greatly outnumbered, was able to surround the Roman army and defeat them After 12 years, Scipio a great military general and survivor of the Battle of Cannae, was chosen to lead the war against Hannibal 204 BC Scipio, in a brilliant move, sailed to Africa and invaded the kingdom of Carthage 204 BC Gaius Marius the Army dominated the State Professionalized the Army. Land was given by the General.
Loyalty has shifted away from the Republic. in 58 BC, Caesar attacked Gaul JULIUS
CEASAR 31 BC In 49 BC, Pompey, Ceasar's chief rival, ordered him to return to Rome and leave his army. But Caesar wanted absolute power. He faced Pompey's army in Greece and won. After returning to Rome, Julius Caesar won the Roman people's loyalty. Overcome with confidence, he asked to be elected Dictator for Life. A series of struggle to gain power erupted. this period ended when Octavian, Caesar's nephew and heir, was elected Sole Roman Leader - Solved the problems with the warring armies by
proclaiming himself as sole Patron
- Distributed grains and supplied Rome with clean water
through the building of the Aqueducts
- He added 800 miles of Roman roads
- He staged the most lavish games. Tiberius Caligula Nero Trajan Hadrian Julio-Claudians Dynasty Flavian Dynasty 14 - 68 AD 2nd Century AD - A series of unfit emperors.
- Romans lost their identity when Caracalla murdered
thousands of Romans
- They turned to cults, as the cult of the emperor
AD A PERIOD OF MILITARY ANARCHY 260 AD Valerian went to negotiate with the Persians. He was captured, and forced to his knees only to be stepped on by the King. He was humiliated, killed, and flayed. this marked the Beginning of the End of the Roman Empire 285 AD 312 AD the empire was divided into two. The East & West. 331 AD Constantine moved the capital to Constantinople in the West CHRISTIANITY DECLARED AS A STATE RELIGION Senate 410 AD 455 AD VISIGOTHS PLUNDER ROME THE VANDALS SACK ROME Greek colonizers traveled across the Mediterranean to uncharted territories. They arrived in the northern part of modern day Italy. The Chimaera of Arezzo, about 400-375 B.C. Bronze Etruscan Ring, 4th century BC-3rd century BC Urn, End of the 3rd c. B.C., Alabaster. From Sarteano (Siena). Siena, National Archaeological Museum The “Sarcophagus of the Spouses”, Etruscan, c. 520-510 BCE, Louvre, Paris. Tomb of the Triclinium From the Tomb of the Triclinio, Tarquinia The Tomb of Capitelli Rome is now a thriving city. Trading with the rest of the Mediterranean, including the Greeks. It's population rapidly growing. Under these circumstances, Rome made one of its greatest contribution to the world. ONE PROBLEM:
NO WOMEN This gave the Roman citizens RIGHTS. everyone has a say on how their city is run Marble relief known as Domitius Ahenobarbus relief, detail of military census, from Rome, Campo Marzio, Temple of Neptune Foundation of the Republic detail of Suicide of Lucretia 1515 - Tiziano Vecellio Rape of Lucretia ROME'S DISSATISFACTION WITH THE ETRUSCANS IS GROWING The Rape of Lucretia, Felice Ficherelli (1603–1660) 3rd Century BC 2nd Century BC The Romans became the dominant people of the Mediterranean The Roman elite, once rural, became a luxurious and cosmopolitan one. The Soldiers being so far from their lands for so long, return to see their farms taken over by landlords. They have nowhere to go. Dazzled by this, the Romans did the unthinkable. They voluntarily voted Caesar the absolute power of a dictator. IDES OF MARCH THE PUBLIC WAS OUTRAGED. THEIR CHAMPION WAS MURDERED BY A FEW ARISTOCRATS. CAESAR WAS EVENTUALLY ELEVATED TO THE DIVINE. So in 44 BC, he was invited by the senate to explain his actions, and was assassinated. Claudius Vespanian Nerva Antoninus Pius Marcus Aurelius CENTURY OF DOUBT REPUBLIC the EMPIRE is now an in 27 BC, the Senate gave him absolute power. AUGUSTUS ROME'S FIRST EMPEROR 1 AD, Jesus Christ was born 33 AD, Jesus Christ was crucified Nativity by Gerard van Honthorst (1590–1656) The Humiliation of Emperor Valerian by Shapur I, pen and ink, Hans Holbein the Younger, ca. 1521 Constantine the Great, mosaic in Hagia Sophia, c. 1000 Constantinople, 1576, Cities of the World, Georg Braun, Franz Hogenberg and Joris Hoefnagel The Roman Empire, Eastern and Western, in the 4th Century, "The Public Schools Historical Atlas" by Charles Colbeck 1905. Mosaic depicting theater masks Roman 2nd century DIOCLETIAN 284 AD 4TH CENTURY Vision of the Cross, Raphael, (aka Raffaello Sanzio) (1483-1520) Statue of Constantine The Great, outside York Minster IN HOC SIGNO VINCES CONSTANTINE 331 AD Rome could no longer rule by military force They have to negotiate and accomodate
the Barbarians. ALARIC wanted a dignified coexistence leader of the Visigoths THE ROMAN EMPIRE
- built circa 70 AD
- Became meeting place for public for entertainment and sport
- later, used to persecute Christians Colosseum Arch of Constantine