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Ashmeer Faudzi

on 5 December 2012

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Ashmeer Faudzi 2011294462
Muaz Affan 2011878906 LIMITED EFFECTS THEORY The Limited Effects Theory is a mass communication theory which argues that the influence from a mass media message on individual is limited or even trivial.
Media rarely directly influence individuals. Most people are sheltered from direct propaganda manipulation. People did not believe everything what they hear or see in the media.
They usually turn to others for advice and interpretations. Opinion Followers Macro Level TWO STEP FLOW THE STRENGTH
TWO - STEP FLOW THEORY Weakness It is limited to its time (time frame).
Report only the voting behavior.
Downplay reinforcement as an important media effect.
Uses survey method.
Later research demonstrate a multi flow effect. INTRODUCTION Effect of World War 2 saw the rise of the other mass communication theories, in particular the effects on mass communication.
The outcomes of the theories of propaganda, gives rise to the other moderate view of the POWER of mass media.
The media were no longer feared as instruments of political oppression and manipulation but instead view a force which has potential social good. The media’s power over the public was seen limited (defying the Magic Bullet Theory). So limited that no government regulations were deemed necessary to prevent media manipulation.
The public was viewed as independent and intelligent and could resistant persuasion and extremist manipulation.
There was a brief that most people were influence by other factors rather than by the media and the role of opinion leaders were responsible for guiding and stabilizing politics.
It was also believe that a very small minority of people psychologically were vulnerable to direct manipulation be the media. Limited Effects Theories are psychological theories at their roots.
Functionalism, examines impact on large groups and on people who make up those large groups.
Functionalism is not an individual effects theory. It is an institutional effects theory, dealing with the macro level of the social system as a whole. Micro Level Deal with impact of media on individuals. Opinion Leaders Media will be only be influence if the opinion leaders who guide others are influenced first.
Opinion leaders are sophisticated, critical and not easily manipulated by media content.
By the time most people becomes adults, they have developed strong held group commitments.
The individual media messages are powerless to overcome the commitment cause people to reject certain messages.
Media effects occur, it will be small and isolated. Those receive information from opinion leaders.
They received second handed information.
Receive not only facts but also the input of an opinion leader on that particular subject. Gate Keepers People who screen media messages and pass on those messages that help others share their views. The idea that messages pass from the media through (inter-mediaries) such as Opinion Leaders to Opinion Followers. Strength Focus on the environment in which effect can and cant occur.
Stress importance of opinion leaders in formation of public opinion.
This theory is based on inductive rather than deductive reasoning .
Effectively challenges the simplistic notions of direct effects. Media were conceptualized (viewed) as relatively powerless in shaping public opinion as compere to other influences like individuals or group memberships.
How and why did such radical transformation of thinking in media theory takes place in a very short period of time?
This change of thinking apparently was the result of continuous research by Paul Lazarsfeld (Prinston University & later moved to Columbia University) who developed the use of sophisticated surveys to measure media influence on how people’s thought and act. These surveys provided convincing evidence that media rarely are powerful and has direct influence on individuals.
The effects were limited in scope. Media can only influence few people in their thoughts and actions which were referred to as Limited Effects Perspective.
That is the idea that the media have limited effects on individual Only a small minority of the people had psychological traits that made them vulnerable to direct manipulation by media.
In fact, media were thought relatively powerless in shaping public opinion.
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