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Contemporary Middle Eastern History
Transcript of Contemporary Middle Eastern History
Israel-55% of land
Palestine-45% of land
Jerusalem is "international city" Mediterranean Sea
Saudi Arabia Where is the "Middle East"? Arab World? Muslim World? Holy Land? Arab Language Many Other Languages too! Egypt - 11
Syria - 17
Iraq - 23
Israel - 36
Iran - 71 Arabs = ethnic group Followers of Islam Muslims live ALL OVER the WORLD! Indonesia: 181 mil.
Pakistan: 142 mil.
Bangladesh: 110 mil.
India: 124 mil. Birthplaces of Religions Turkey: 65 mil.
Iran: 65 mil.
Nigeria: 63 mil.
Egypt: 53 mil.
China: 38 mil. Bahai – Iran (Persia)
Christianity – Israel (Palestine)
Islam – Saudi Arabia (Arabia)
Judaism – Israel (Palestine)
Zoroastrianism – Iran (Persia) DIVERSITY WEALTH POVERTY Egypt Palestine Yemen Jordan Saudi Arabia Qatar Dubai Dubai Other Ethnic Groups Bedouins
Extremely hot (day) 120-140
Extremely cold (night) 0
Empty Quarter (Arabian Peninsula)
Very little precipitation Steppe/Semiarid
Very warm, hot
Rocky terrain, some vegetation
Turkey, Iran Mediterranean Persian
Afghans Kurdistan 25 million Kurdish people Read the article, "Over a Barrel." Discuss and answer the questions in your small group. Discuss as a class. 1.2 million Arabs
600,000 Jews Perspectives on 1947 UN Plan Israeli Palestinian accepted by Jews
created state of Israel rejected by Arabs no Arabs sat on the committee for this plan Perspectives on 1948 War Israeli Palestinian 1948 War May 14 - Israel declared independence
May 15- Israel attacked by Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon,
Saudi Arabia 750,000 Palestinians fled or were forced out
800,000 Jews forced fled or were forced to leave Arab nations, for Israel Israel-Western Jerusalem
Jordan-Eastern Jerusalem (religious sites) War of Independence
having a homeland may have prevented the Holocaust and other periods of violence against them throughout history Nabka- "catastrophe"
Land set aside for Palestinians are now under Arab (Egyptian or Jodanian) and Israeli control 1956 Suez Canal Crisis Egypt nationalizes the Suez Canal
Closed Straits of Tiran to Israel
Blocked Israeli access to the Red Sea Israel attacks Egypt-support from France and UK ceasefire agreement
withdrawal of Israeli Troops UN Peacekeepers Perspectives on Suez Crisis Israeli Arab (Egyptian) Israel loses
retains use of Suez Canal Egypt maintains control as long as it remains open to Israel and allies 1967 Six Day War Israel believes neighbors are preparing for war
May '67- Egypt requests UN withdrawal
Egypt denies Israel access to Red Sea
Jordan and Egypt-mutual defense agreement
terrorist attacks from Golan Heights June 5, 1967- Israeli surprise attack against Egypt
Israel also attacks Syria and Jordan
Israel wins in 6 days Perspectives on 1967 War Israeli Palestinian and Arab land gained is a buffer zone
West Bank, Gaza Strip, Sinai, Golan Heights
begin to build settlements in new acquisitions unified Jerusalem under Israeli control West Bank and Gaza Strip become known as "occupied territories" some will accept Israel at PRE-1967 borders Palestinian refugees flee to neighboring countries 1973 Yom Kippur War Anwar Sadat (Egypt) attacks Israel Arabs recapture territories lost in '67 Israel counterattacks and gets most of it back UN res. 242- Israeli occupation of territories is unlawful-must withdraw-IGNORED! Perspectives on 1973 Yom Kippur War Israel continues to push through to Cairo, ignoring UN Security Council Res. 338-demanding a ceasefire Angered over US support for Israel, Saudi Arabia instates the oil embargo-CRISIS! U.S. and Soviet threats to join Egypt pressure Israel to stop Israeli Arab both sides devastated by fighting
both sides ready for diplomatic peace efforts (Egypt initiates in 1977) 1978 Camp David Accords Carter invites Anwar Sadat (Egypt) and Menachem Begin (Israel) to Camp David for negotiations 1978 Camp David Accords enforces UN res 242
Sinai returns to Egyptian control
normalized relationship between two nations
free passage through waterways CONTROVERSY: still no resolution for Palestine. Israel effectively controls West Bank and Gaza Strip... Israeli Palestinian and Arab Israel is willing to trade conquered land (and oil resources) for peace Egypt recognizes Israel 1981 Anwar Sadat is assassinated by Muslim extremists 1970s & '80s: Palestinians continue to violence
Palestinian Liberation Organization (1964) lead by Yasser Arafat ('69)
Arafat also first President of National Palestinian Authority 1982: Israel invades Lebanon-devastated Arabs 1987: The Intifada: Palestinian uprising against Israeli occupation
demand independence-boycotts, strikes, demonstrations, gas bombs
Israeli military response
400 Israelis killed
1500 Palestinians killed Palestinian Authority Divides Hamas
Shiite organization in Gaza Hezbollah
mostly Sunni at Golan Heights Fatah
former PLO in West Bank 1993 Oslo Peace Accords Declaration of Principles:
Palestine recognized Israel's right to exist.
PLO will work to stop terrorism against Israel.
Rabin agreed to Palestinian self-rule in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank (1995). Arafat and Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin met in Sweden for negotiations. Establishes the Palestinian Authority which will govern over Palestine. 1993 Oslo Peace Accords Articulates the process of statehood
Area A: Complete Palestinian Control
8% of the West Bank (8 urban centers)
Area B: Joint Control between Palestine and Israel
30% of the West Bank
Area C: Israeli Control
62% of West Bank Rabin assassinated in 1995 by Jewish extremist. peace fades away.... 2000 Second Intifada Palestinian violence erupts when Israeli Ariel Sharon visits holy sites in Jerusalem. suicide bombers strike in Israel
(buses, discos, hotels, fast food restaurants, etc.) Israeli Defense Forces respond 2000-2008
4500 Palestinians killed
1000 Israelis killed Current Issue Israeli Perspective Palestinian Perspective Jerusalem Settlements Security Wall Movement Terrorism Right of
Return sees united Jerusalem as its capital sees East Jerusalem as its capital 2700 settlers in West Bank
religious, political, security violate the idea of a Palestinian state to prevent further suicide bombings goes beyond borders wall: 449 miles
Green Line: 199 miles checkpoint security to prevent terrorism restrictions limit jobs, health care, education, resources etc.
low standard of living Hamas & Hezbollah fire rockets into Israel most Palestinians & gov't denounce terrorism Jewish state would cease to exist if refugees began reclaiming lands in Israel believe they should be able to return to their lands in Israel