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Chapter 19- The Postwar Boom
Transcript of Chapter 19- The Postwar Boom
Ch 19, Section 1- Postwar America
Divide your notes into the Big Three Topics:
-For this section, we are going to examine the status of the U.S. in each of these areas after WWII
-Truman was nominated for election as Democratic Candidate for president
-Southern Democrats, known as Dixiecrats, protested Truman's support of Civil Rights, and nominated their own candidate- Strom Thurmond (Gov. of S. Carolina)
-Henry A. Wallace also formed a more liberal Progressive Party
-What does this do to Democrats in the election???
Although NY Governor Thomas Dewey was expected to win comfortably because of the split Democratic vote, "Give 'em Hell" Harry Truman campaigned especially hard, and used his time in office to promote higher Social Security coverage, federal education aid, a higher minimum wage, etc. Apparently these tactics worked!
-why would this voting population like these ideas so much?
-Upon election, Truman announced his ambitious "Fair Deal", an extension of FDR's programs
And More Political....
-Election of 1952- Republican Dwight Eisenhower was elected as a moderate Republican
- "Modern Republicanism"- conservative when it came to money and liberal when it came to human beings
-Brown v. Board of Education
- Interstate system
-GI Bill- what did this do for the middle class family??
-Housing crisis and the "Levitt Home"
-"suburbs were made as a result
-The family structure changed. Many women staying in the work force following WWII, combined with all of the quick marriages before the war created a massive increase in the number of divorces in 1950 (over 1 million)
What do you think?
-Both Truman and Ike sided on the side of Civil Rights during this time.
-1948- Truman issued an executive order for integration of the armed forces
-Supreme Court became involved in preventing obstacles for African Americans from moving into certain neighborhoods
-1954- Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
Economics in Postwar America
-When WWII ended, the U.S. ended wartime contracts within the U.S. adding to over $35 Billion
-Look in your books at p. 636.
-What do the graphs tell you about the economy during this time?
-Why is this a different outcome than what many had expected
-The Cold War also contributed greatly, as it kept defense spending high
-The spending of the Marshall Plan kept a lot of money moving around, too
Main Ideas, 19.1:
1. Through the many political, social and economic problems, American voters eventually resorted to conservative values for stability
2. Truman and Eisenhower had similar practice domestically. Even though they were opposing parties, they were both moderate.
-Now for your project......
Section 2- The American Dream in the Fifties
Explain the causes and the effects of McCarthyism in the U.S.
The fist major shift in employment in the 1950s was from a majority of Americans working blue collar jobs, to white collar jobs.
- what is the difference between the two?
-why would this switch happen in the '50's?
New business practices:
-franchise- company that offers similar services and products in several situations
-conglomerate- a large corporation that includes a number of smaller companies in unrelated industries, such as International Telephone and Telegraph, Xerox, and General Electric
The Baby Boom
-During the late 1940s through 1960s, returning WWII vets contributed to a massive population explosion, thus creating the baby boom generation
-At the peak in 1957, birthrates went up to about one baby every 7 seconds
-How would this change society?
Here was how the ideal American family was portrayed...
As the changing middle class was now able to afford family cars, the lifestyle of Americans drastically changed due to mobility, traffic, stress and accidents
Look at p. 647 in your book. What cultural changes did the automobile lead to?
Main Ideas, 19.2:
1. Changes in business and education brought a new class of middle class white-collar workers
2. The suburban lifestyle reflected one of consumerism and the new middle class
3. Causes of automania- easy credit and cheap gas from WWII surpluses. Effects- cultural changes, mobility and the interstate highway system
Ch 19, Section 3- Popular Culture
-The 1950s became defined by an age of mass media.
-TV became the dominant way to reach people/ Between 1950 and 1960, the number of Americans with TV sets went from 9% to 90%.
-FCC- Federal Communications Commission (formed in 1934) regulated all broadcast material
-These changes changed other parts of culture, too- TV Dinners, TV Guide, violence in movies, etc.
"The Boob Tube"
As a reaction against the conformity of mass media, a subculture emerged that tried to live non conventional lives. These people were called "beats" or "beatniks".
Rock 'n' Roll
-Eventually, the defining music of the age was rock'n'roll music.
-Watch the following clips, and write down in your notes how you can see the influence that created "rock'n'roll".
Compare to today: Do you think that teenagers are a major target for advertisers? Why or why not?
-Brainstorm with your partner ways that teenagers are an important advertising target today.
Main Ideas, 19.3:
1. Programs in the 1950s were a reflection of middle class values
2. The beat movement and rock'n'roll music was a reaction to those family values
3. Most popular music was derived from jazz, rhythm and blues by African American artists.
What is conformity? Why would mass media create conformity in the U.S. during the 1950s? Can you name any specific examples?