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Copy of Ganga Action Plan (GAP)
Transcript of Copy of Ganga Action Plan (GAP)
Test of water contamination in which the number of the colonies
of coliform-bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli) per 100 milliliter of
water is counted. The result is expressed as 'Coliform Microbial
Density' and indicates the extent of fecal matter present in it.
According to common water quality standards drinking water must be
completely free from any colony, bathing and swimming pool water can
have about 200 colonies, and recreational (fishing and boating) water
about 1000 colonies.The coliform count is usually reported as the
number of coliform bacteria estimated to be present in 100 cm3
•Control of non-point pollution from agricultural run off, human defecation, cattle wallowing and throwing of unburnt and half burnt bodies into the river.
•Research and Development to conserve the biotic, diversity of the river to augment its productivity.
•New technology of sewage treatment like Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) and sewage treatment through afforestation has been successfully developed.
•Rehabilitation of soft-shelled turtles for pollution abatement of river have been demonstrated and found useful.
•Resource recovery options like production of methane for energy generation and use of aquaculture for revenue generation have been demonstrated.
•To act as trend setter for taking up similar action plans in other grossly polluted stretches in other rivers.
Ganga Action Plan (GAP):
design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
The Ganges river basin is one of the most fertile and densely populated regions in the world and covers an area of 1,080,000 km2 (400,000 square miles). The river flows through 29 cities with population over 100,000; 23 cities with population between 50,000 and 100,000, and about 48 towns.A large proportion of the waste in the Ganges is from this population through domestic usage like bathing, laundry and public defecation.
The Ganga action plan was, launched by Shri Rajeev Gandhi,
the then Prime Minister of India on 14 Jan. 1986 with the main objective of pollution abatement, to improve the water quality by Interception, Diversion and treatment of domestic sewage and present toxic and industrial chemical wastes from identified grossly polluting units entering in to the river.
The ultimate objective of the GAP is to have an approach of integrated river basin management considering the various dynamic inter-actions between abiotic and biotic eco-system.
Ganga runs its course of over
2500 kms from Gangotri in the Himalayas to Ganga Sagar in the Bay of Bengal through 29 cities with population over 1,00,000 , 23 cities with population between 50,000 and 1,00,000 , and about 48 towns.
It is a river with which the people
of India are attached spiritually and emotionally. Department of Environment, in December 1984, prepared an action plan for immediate reduction of pollution load on the river Ganga. The Cabinet approved the GAP (Ganga Action Plan)in April 1985 as a 100 per cent centrally sponsored scheme.
Most of the main pollution issues with the Ganges deals with improper sewage management. New Delhi alone produces 3.6 billion liters of sewage daily, with only half being treated effectively. Some of the tributaries of the Ganges, like Yamuna, have already become unusable because of industrial effluents and human excremen.While there are around 300 processing facilities in India, many are poorly managed and oft times treated waste is mixed in with untreated and then thrown back into the water. This kind of pollution can cause serious water-born diseases like severe diarrhea, a leading cause of death among children in India
During festival seasons, over 70 million people bathe in the Ganges over a few weeks to cleanse themselves from their sins. Some materials like food, waste or leaves are left in the Ganges for ritualistic reasons.
The results of mercury analysis in various specimens collected along the basin indicated that some fish muscles tended to accumulate high levels of mercury from the industrial effluents. Of it, approximately 50–84% was organic mercury. A strong positive correlation between mercury levels in muscle with food habit and fish length was found.
Some of the dams being constructed along the Ganges basin will submerge substantial areas of nearby forest. For example, the Kotli-Bhel dam at Devprayag will submerge 1200 hectares of forest, wiping out the river otters and 'mahaseer' (a kind of fish) that are found here.Wildlife biologists in India have been warning that the wild animals will find it difficult to cope with the changed situation.
An analysis of the Ganges water in 2006 showed significant associations between water-borne/enteric disease pop and the use of the river for bathing, laundry, washing, eating, cleaning utensils, and brushing teeth. Exposure factors such as washing clothes, bathing and lack of sewerage, toilets at residence, children defecating outdoors, poor sanitation, low income and low education levels also showed significant associations with enteric disease outcome. Water in the Ganges has been correlated to contracting dysentery, cholera, hepatitis, as well as severe diarrhea which continues to be one of the leading causes of death of children in India.
A 2006 measurement of pollution in the Ganges revealed that river water monitoring over the previous 12 years had demonstrated fecal coliform counts up to 100,000,000 MPN (most probable number) per 100 ml
A systematic classification done by Uttarakhand Environment Protection and Pollution Control Board’s (UEPPCB) on river waters into the categories A: safe for drinking, B: safe for bathing, C: safe for agriculture, and D: excessive pollution, put the Ganges in D. Coliform bacteria levels in the Ganges have also been tested to be at 5,500, a level too high to be safe for agricultural use let alone drinking and bathing.
Coliform: The annual data available for 2005 shows that only in Rishikesh the coliform counts are within bathing quality standards. In other words, at all other monitoring stations the river remains microbially contaminated and therefore unfit for human consumption. For the river to be fit for bathing, the total coliform count shall not exceed 500 mpn/100ml.
Graph: Ganga remains faecally contaminated
Impact Of The GAP
The program was launched with much fanfare, but it failed to decrease the pollution level in the river, after spending 901.71 crore (approx. 1010) rupees over a period of 15 years.
The Ganga today is more polluted than when the Ganga Action Plan was first initiated by the late Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi in 1986. The fast shrinking glaciers, dams, barrages, canals and alarmingly high volume of pollution pose an ever increasing threat to the health and life of the river. The state of Uttar Pradesh alone is responsible for over 50% of the pollutants entering the river along its entire journey to the sea.
The 2006 official audit of the Ganga Action Plan has revealed that it has met only 39 per cent of its sewage treatment target. Moreover, the plan is behind schedule by over 13 years. According to the legal counsel, Central Pollution Control Board, Mr Vijay Panjawani, even after spending Rs 24,000 crore, the Ganga remains as dirty as ever.
Under this plan , many industries on the banks of the Ganges without installed ETP’s(effluent treatment plants) have been closed.
Since GAP Phase-I did not cover the pollution load of Ganga fully, GAP Phase II which included Plans for Yamuna, Gomti, Damodar and Mahananda besides Ganga was approved in various stages from 1993 onwards.
Even though both the phases of plans was sanctioned with a lot of money, it still couldn’t hit the right spot where it should have.
Thank you And Have
A Nice Day.
So This Is What Our Government Has Done To Take Care Of It
Unfortunately, there is more than pollution that affects the Ganges, and if greenhouse gas emissions are not curbed then the river will either become too salinated for normal use or disappear completely.