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Radicale verbindingen - multi-agency

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Christophe Busch

on 6 November 2017

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Transcript of Radicale verbindingen - multi-agency

Radical connections
setting-up a multi-agency network
Een moderator is een variabele die
e sterkte en/of de richting
van een triggerfactor in het radicaliseringsproces kan beïnvloeden. Met andere woorden, een moderator specificeert onder welke omstandigheden een effect plaatsvindt.
Triggerfactoren in het Radicaliseringsproces
Expertise-unit Sociale Stabiliteit | Universiteit van Amsterdam
Triggerfactoren in het Radicaliseringsproces
Expertise-unit Sociale Stabiliteit | Universiteit van Amsterdam
10 stages of genocide (Stanton)
cumulative radicalisation - H. Mommsen
Hatzfeld, J. (2004). Seizoen van de machetes. Amsterdam: De bezige bij. p. 106
“De blanken willen niet zien wat ze niet kunnen geloven en kunnen niet in een
geloven omdat
een moordpartij is die ieders verstand te boven gaat
, zowel het hunne als dat van anderen. Ik denk bovendien dat niemand ooit de volle waarheid over deze mysterieuze tragedie op schrift zal stellen: noch de professoren uit Kigali en Europa noch de intellectuelen en politici. Elke verklaring zal aan de ene of de andere kant tekortschieten als een gammele tafel. Een genocide is geen slecht struikgewas dat opschiet uit twee of drie wortels, maar uit
een geheel van samengeklitte wortels die onder de grond beschimmeld zijn
zonder dat iemand het merkte.”

Claudine Kayitesi, een boerin van de heuvel van N’tamara die de Rwandese genocide overleefd heeft.
radical (adj.)
late 14c., in a medieval philosophical sense, from Late Latin
radicalis "of or having roots,"
Latin radix "root"
. Meaning "going to the origin, essential" is from 1650s.

Political sense of "reformist" (via notion of "change from the roots") is first recorded 1802 (n.), 1817 (adj.), of the extreme section of the British Liberal party (radical reform had been a current phrase since 1786); meaning "unconventional" is from 1921. U.S. youth slang use is from 1983, from 1970s surfer slang meaning "at the limits of control." Radical chic is attested from 1970; popularized, if not coined, by Tom Wolfe. Radical empiricism coined 1897 by William James.
" Umwanzi ni umwe ni umutusi" (
the enemy
is one, it is the Tutsi)
fear & uncertainty in war & coercive and social pressure
"The finding that
social ties
group dynamics
played a key role in leading ordinary people to join in the violence is also consistent with one of the most seminal works on the Holocaust, that of Christopher Browning." (p. 187)
Cumulative radicalisation
“Most historians now subscribe to
a mix of the intentionalist and structuralist positions
. No historian doubts the importance of Hitler and his ideological beliefs in determining Nazi policy. His ideological obsessions shaped the Third Reich. The Fuhrer commanded adulation and universal respect. His
was the glue that held together the Third Reich… At the same time, though, Hitler was
not omnipotent
. He needed to uphold his personal popularity. Governmental disarray limited what he could achieve.”
Epstein C.
Hans Mommsen
transformative processes
disruptive actions
Rhizome manoeuvre community policing
social fabric & swarm
connecting narratives

polarization management
trigger factoren

Bart Brandsma
"I think, moreover, that no one will ever line up the truths of this mysterious tragedy and write them down - not the professors in Kigali and Europe, not the groups of intellectuals and politicians. Every explanation will give way on one side or another, like a wobbly table. A genocide is a poisonous bush that grows not from two or three roots, but from a whole tangle that has moldered underground without anyone noticing."
walking through walls
liquid, not site but medium
From the terrorists' point of view
What they experience and why they come to destroy
'Terrorists think
, but they think
within the limits of belief systems
that may be irrational. Unlike the delusions of psychotics, these belief systems are
social constructs
shared by large numbers of people. Terrorist belief systems are
and they are defended with great
emotional intensity
. Anyone who wishes to remain within a terrorist group must limit his thinking to the parameters of the group’s belief system.'
(Goertzel, 2002:1)
=> “ernstige onvrede met de bestaande maatschappelijke constellatie, een beeld van mensen en instellingen die hier voor verantwoordelijk zijn, een idee of utopie hoe het anders zou kunnen en een concept van actoren die dat kunnen bewerkstelligen.”
Buijs FJ & Demant F; Extremisme en radicalisering. In : Muller ER, Rosenthal U & de Wijk R; Terrorisme: studies over terrorisme en terrorismebestrijding, (Kluwer: Deventer, 2008), p. 171-173.

omvat immers “uiteenlopende opvattingen en gedragingen die gekenmerkt worden door de afwijzing van de democratische constitutionele staat, democratische procedures en democratische waarden”
Buijs FJ & Demant F; Extremisme en radicalisering. In : Muller ER, Rosenthal U & de Wijk R; Terrorisme: studies over terrorisme en terrorismebestrijding, (Kluwer: Deventer, 2008), p. 171-173.

the instrumental use of violence by people who identify themselves as members of a group – whether this group is transitory or has a more permanent identity – against another group or set of individuals, in order to achieve political, economic or social objectives.
collective violence
Wars, terrorism and other violent political conflicts that occur within or between states.
State-perpetrated violence such as genocide, repression, disappearances, torture and other abuses of human rights.
Organized violent crime such as banditry and gang warfare.
Nationalist Terrorists (including ethnic and separatist)
Ideological Terrorists (left and right wing)
Religio-Political Terrorists (including fundamentalist and millenarian)
Single-Issue Terrorists (concerned with only one problem)
State-Sponsored and State-(Supported) Terrorists
Modern terrorism - not a new phenomenon
first wave of terrorism
: variety of
groups - second half 19th century
second wave of terrorism
terrorism - 2 decades after WWII
third wave of terrorism
: '
new left-wing
' terrorism - from the 1970s
fourth wave of terrorism
religious terrorism
- from 1979 Shah's regime toppled by an Islamist revolution
David Rapoport
Taarnby ( 2005 )
: ‘the progressive personal development from law-abiding Muslim to Militant Islamist’;
Jensen (2006)
: ‘a process during which people gradually adopt views and ideas which might lead to the legitimisation of political violence’;
Ongering ( 2007 )
: ‘process of personal development whereby an individual adopts ever more extreme political or politic-religious ideas and goals, becoming convinced that the attainment of these goals justifies extreme methods’;
Demant, Slootman, Buijs & Tillie ( 2008 )
: ‘a process of de-legitimation, a process in which confidence in the system decreases and the individual retreats further and further into his or her own group, because he or she no longer feels part of society’;
Ashour ( 2009 )
: ‘Radicalisation is a process of relative change in which a group undergoes ideological and/or behavioural transformations that lead to the rejection of democratic principles (including the peaceful alternation of power and the legitimacy of ideological and political pluralism) and possibly to the utilisation of violence, or to an increase in the levels of violence, to achieve political goals’;
Olesen ( 2009 )
: ‘the process through which individuals and organisations adopt violent strategies—or threaten to do so—in order to achieve political goals’;
Githens-Mazer ( 2009 )
: ‘a collectively defined, individually felt moral obligation to participate in ‘direct action’ (legal or illegal—as opposed to ‘apathy’)’;
Horgan & Bradock ( 2010 )
: ‘the social and psychological process of incrementally experienced commitment to extremist political or religious ideology’;
Kortweg, et al. ( 2010 )
: ‘the quest to drastically alter society, possibly through the use of unorthodox means, which can result in a threat to the democratic structures and institutions’;
Mandel ( 2012 )
: ‘an increase in and/or reinforcing of extremism in the thinking, sentiments, and/or behaviour of individuals and/or groups of individuals’;
Awan, et al. ( 2012 )
: ‘a phenomenon that has emerged in the early twenty-first century because the new media ecology enables patterns of connectivity that can be harnessed by individuals and groups for practices of persuasion, organisation and the enactment of violence. The very possibility of this happening but uncertainty about how it happens created a conceptual vacuum which ‘radicalisation’ filled’;
Sinai ( 2012 )
: ‘Radicalisation is the process by which individuals—on their own or as part of a group—begin to be exposed to, and then accept, extremist ideologies’;
Baehr ( 2013, forthcoming )
: ‘The concept radicalisation defi nes an individual process, which, influenced by external actors, causes a socialisation during which an internalisation and adoption of ideas and views takes place which are supported and advanced in every form. [Armed] with these ideas and views, the persons [affected] strive to bring about a radical change of the social order. If the ideas and views represent an extremist ideology, they even seek to achieve their goals by means of terrorist violence. [What is] decisive is, that radicalisations presuppose a process of socialization, during which individuals adopt, over a shorter or longer period of time, political ideas and views which in their extremist form can lead to the legitimization of political violence’.
'drowned in complexity'
the concept of radicalisation
, as used in many government-linked quarters, suffers from
, is
, applied
(only non-state actors are assumed to radicalise, not governments), often
lacks a clear benchmark
(e.g. adherence to democratic principles and the rule of law, abstaining from the use of violence for political ends), and is
linked too readily with terrorism
(broadly defined) as outcome.
individual or collective (group) process
whereby, usually in a situation of political polarisation, normal practices of dialogue, compromise and tolerance between political actors and groups with diverging interests are abandoned by one or both sides in
a conflict dyad
in favour of
a growing commitment to engage in confrontational tactics
of conflict-waging.

These can include either
(i) the use of (non-violent) pressure and coercion,
(ii) various forms of political violence other than terrorism or
(iii) acts of violent extremism in the form of terrorism and war crimes.

The process is, on the side of rebel factions, generally accompanied by an
ideological socialization
away from mainstream or status quo-oriented positions towards more radical or extremist positions involving a
dichotomous world view
and the acceptance of
an alternative focal point
of political mobilization outside the dominant political order as the existing system is no longer recognized as appropriate or legitimate.
(Schmid, 2013: 18)
refers, on the one hand, to
a doctrine
about the presumed effectiveness of a special form or tactic of
fear-generating, coercive political violence
and, on the other hand, to a conspiratorial practice of calculated, demonstrative, direct violent action without legal or moral restraints, targeting mainly civilians and non-combatants, performed for its
psychological effects
on various audiences and conflict parties
A.P. Schmid (Ed.). Handbook of Terrorism Research. London, Routledge, 2011, pp.86-87.
For as Schmid notes, ‘Extremists generally tend to have inflexible “
closed minds
”, adhering to a
simplified mono-causal interpretation of the world
where you are either with them or against them, part of the problem or part of the solution’ (Schmid, 2013: 10).
1. Anti-constitutional, anti-democratic, anti-pluralist, authoritarian
2. Fanatical, intolerant, non-compromising, single-minded black-or-white thinkers
3. Rejecting the rule of law while adhering to an ends-justify-means philosophy
4. Use of force/violence over persuasion
5. Uniformity over diversity
6. Collective goals over individual freedom
7. Giving orders over dialogue
8. Strong emphasis on ideology
250+ definitions!!
radicalisation - extremism - terrorism
what's in a name?
street dawa - Antwerpen - april 2012

def. vs data
Triggerfactoren in het Radicaliseringsproces
Expertise-unit Sociale Stabiliteit | Universiteit van Amsterdam
Dit zijn gebeurtenissen die aanwijsbaar een (verdere) (de-)radicalisering in gang zetten. Er bestaan twee categorieën triggerfactoren: keerpunten en katalysatoren
Triggerfactoren in het Radicaliseringsproces
Expertise-unit Sociale Stabiliteit | Universiteit van Amsterdam
1/ elementary particles
complex systems
3/ processes
2/ profiles , roles
root cause(s)
swarm approach
agent based model
modeling radicalization
"Working towards the Führer" (Ian Kershaw)
staircase model (Moghaddam)
individual - group - society
transformative learning processes
linear <=> circular
cause & effect <=> relational
rhizomatic thinking, acting & connecting
complex adaptive systems
manifestations are local
individual - group - society
transformative learning processes
linear <=>
cause & effect <=>
rhizomatic thinking, acting & connecting
Think global - act local
The Collin Mellis model (2007)
ketengerichte, locale netwerk aanpak
Turning away from terrorism
'becoming involved'
with political extremism of terrorism
'being involved'
with political extremism or terrorism either passively (supporter) or actively (terrorist)
'ending involvement'
with political extremism or terrorism either passively or actively
= (gradually) abandoning extremist
individual vs collective
(Froukje Demant, e.a., 2008: 13)
[I]t is the
process of becoming less radical
. This process of ‘becoming less radical’ applies both to
. With regard to behaviour, this primarily involves the cessation of violent actions. With regard to beliefs, this involves an increase in confidence in the system, a desire to once more be a part of society, and the rejection of non-democratic means. […] In general, the de-radicalisation of behaviour is linked with the de-radicalisation of beliefs.
“the path to de-radicalisation is not necessarily the reverse of the path to radicalisation”
(Moghadam, 2009: 281)
To fight radicalisation there is a demand for prevention, intervention and law enforcement
we need a
multi-agency network
Trust and personal relationships
Momentum and political/government assignment (public & private actors)
The need for sharing agreements / frameworks
Developing a shared language / shared tools (quality standards!)
Diversity in ways to shape multi-agency cooperation
Building on existing multi-agency structures
multi-agency settings
are dominated by professionals working together.
Families, grass root organisations, religious leaders and communities
tend to be less involved!!
Main issues & challenges
in setting up multi-agency structures
Ex post paper RAN P&P (24-25/2/2017) / RAN EXIT (1/11/2016)
Full transcript