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Matter

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by

Sidney James

on 2 December 2015

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Transcript of Matter

Matter
Liquid
Molecules of liquids have a bit more freedom to move than solids since they slowly flow around each other. Liquids don't have definite shape and volume - they

usually take the shape of the container their in. They, being matter, always have mass and take up space.
Solid
The molecules in solids have a rigid structure and are tightly packed together. Because of this, solids have definite shape and volume, and they can keep a form without the aid of a container. Like all matter, solids have weight (mass), and take up space.
Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. Anything and everything in the universe is matter, including you. Matter comes in four forms: solids, liquids, gasses, and plasma.
Gas
The molecules in gasses are much more spread out than solids and liquids. Even though you can't see the molecules, gasses are everywhere, and they still take up space. Gasses do not have definite volume, but they do have mass.
The thin film around this bubble is a liquid.
Plasma
Plasma is a special case; they're much more different than the other states. Plasma is a lot like gas, but the molecules in plasma are electrically charged. The Northern Lights, or something a bit more down to Earth like lightning or neon lights, are examples of plasma.
The scales on fish are solids.
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Stars are plasma, too
Now let's move out of the bigger picture...
Phases of Matter
Matter can also change its state, given the right amount of energy. When energy is added, the molecules in matter move faster.
An ice cube is a solid, but you want it to be a liquid. Fist we need energy...
Gasses are everywhere!
The easiest energy to find is heat, so add some heat...
An then you get a puddle of water! Solid to liquid!
Let's take it a step further: turning that puddle into a gas.
Of course, doing that will still require energy. Remember that we can still add heat.
The heat will bring the water to its
boiling point
, and then you have a gas - water vapor to be exact.
The energy from the heat caused the molecules in the ice cube to move faster, and soon the ice cube reached its
melting point
- the point where a solid turns into a liquid.
Boiling point - the temperature at which a liquid turns into a gas.
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Now what if you don't want water vapor? What if you want it to be an ice cube again?
Well, all you need is less energy! Take away energy (heat, in this case) from a gas...
...and it reverts to a liquid!
This phase change is called condensation, a process which occurs in clouds before it rains.
...that liquid will
freeze
into ice once again.
Freezing point - the temperature at which a liquid turns into a solid
These clouds:
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Example
Other things can change state too, like iron or nitrogen. All you need is energy.
Now if we cool down the temperature even further...
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