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In the eyes of

A quick presentation for Intro. To Medical Occupations class on Colorblindness.

Tatiana B.

on 14 December 2015

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Transcript of In the eyes of

Into the eyes:

Color blindness?
By: Tatiana Bopha
Color blindness or color deficiency is a vision problem when a person lacks the ability to see certain colors. They have the inability to see either red, green, blue or a mix of those colors.
A few words...
Types of color blindness
Anomalous Trichromacy
Most of the time color blindness is
from when you were born. In the central part of the retina, called the macula, is where most cone cells lie. People typically have three cone cells sensing red, green, and blue. If you are color blind, you are missing one of these cone cells.
Injuries to the eye
Diseases such as diabetes and sickle cell anemia
Eye diseases like cataracts or age-related macular degeneration
Alcohol abuse
Certain Medicines
Genetics end up playing a huge role in color blindness. When inherited, it is considered a sex-linked recessive trait. Further more it is located on the X-Chromosome which means men have a higher outcome of having the trait. In order for a woman to be color blind she must have both parents with color blindness or a woman being a carrier of it and the father having it.
Quick Lesson
Other Problems

"The Island of the Colorblind" by Oliver Sacks
"Vision" by Jane Samz
"Mayo Clinic on Vision and Eye Health" by Helmut Buettner M.D.

Why does it matter?
Color blindness can affect you in daily life, some examples are posted below...-
Electricians - Colored wires
Fashion Designers
Traffic Lights
Fred Rogers
Usually you go to a regular doctor who will present you with an eye exam and a vision test. If other testing is needed an Ophthalmologist will diagnose if you have color blindness by testing your vision with Ishihara Plates or an arrangement test.
A patient will be presented with an array of colored dots, where they have to spot the 'Number' or 'Figure' that is hidden by the dots. Depending on what the pattern is given to them, it will help the doctor understand and give a diagnosis.
Ishihara Plate
Arrangement Test
The patient will arrange a set of colored chips according to the hues or similarity of the colors given. Most of the time people with color blindness are not able to arrange the colors correctly.
Red/Green color blindness
is caused by defective L-cones, lowering sensitivity to red hues.
is caused by absent L-Cones, removing the ability to see reds – a severe form of color blindness.
is caused by defective M-cones, weakening the ability to differentiate red and green hues in as much as 5% of all males.
is caused by absent M-cones, giving a moderate inability to discriminate red – green hues.
Blue/Yellow color blindness
is caused by weakened S-cones, reducing the ability to distinguish some blue and yellow hues.
is extremely rare, resulting from a total absence of S-cones. Removing the ability to distinguish some blues with green, and some yellows with violet.
Black/white or Total color blindness
Rod monochromacy
is a rare, non progressive inability to distinguish any color, resulting from non functioning or absent retinal cones. Rod monochromacy is typically associated with sensitivity to light (Photophobia) and poor vision.
Cone monochromacy
is also a rare, total color blindness, however is accompanied by relatively normal vision.
-Rarely does this occur, but a person has the inability to see any colors at all, most of the images they see are all monochrome.
-Most common, it is when one of the three cones are altered which impairs a color, rather than fully lose it
-Affects one of the three cones, where the cone is absent or non functional, it reduces the color vision of someone with this form of color blindness to two dimensions.
Previously, there was no cure for color blindness, but research shows that development is one step closer in the process. Scientist injected cells into monkeys in which they recognized color. After two years of the injection, they have shown no side effects. Currently they have created special lenses developed by four companies to reduce their condition. 97% Have reported to it working and greatly increases the success rate of the Ishihara test. The lenses sort of work like sunglasses, each lens is a different color, it would help you detect colors that you weren't able to differentiate before.
If color blindness happened to you over a course of time there may be some ways to prevent it. You can take certain types of treatments to slow or reverse the deficiency. There is also way to compensate for the problem by recognizing the color's brightness and location.
An Ophthalmologist is a doctor who specializes in eye and vision care. They are trained to provide eye care, from prescribing glasses to delicate eye surgeries. They are also involved in scientific research into the causes and cures for eye diseases and vision problems.
In order to become an ophthalmologist you must have....
Four Years of College
Four Years of Medical School
One Year of Internship
Three years, at least, of residency (hospital-based training) in the diagnosis and medical and surgical treatment of eye disorders
To become a certified ophthalmologist you must pass a two-part examination given by the American Board of Ophthalmology.
Optometrist - receives a Doctor of Optometry (OD) degree and is licensed to practice optometry, not medicine. Typically they examine the eye and prescribe medicine for eye diseases.
Optician - trained to design eye glasses that fits to correct your eye sight. They are not permitted to diagnose and treat eye diseases. [Builders/Constructors]
Which is "Witch"?
"I know that colors carry importance for other people... So I will use color names when necessary to communicate with them.
But the colors as such carry no meaning for me.
As a kid, I used to think that it would be nice to see colors, because then I would be able to have a driver's license and to do things that people with normal color vision can do. And if there were some way of acquiring color vision, I suppose it might open a new world, as if one were tone deaf and suddenly became able to hear melodies. It would probably be a very interesting thing, but it would also be very confusing.
Color is something you have to grow up with
, to mature with---your brain, the whole system, the way you react to the world. Bringing in a color as a sort of add-on later in life would be overwhelming, a lot of information I might not be able to cope with.
It would give new qualities to everything that might throw me off completely. Or maybe color would be disappointing, not what I expected
-- who knows?"
Sacks, Oliver. "The Island of the Colorblind".(70).
Knut Nordby
Facts and Statistics
Men Women
Red-green (Overall): 7 to 10% —
Red-green (Caucasians): 8% —
Red-green (Asians): 5% —
Red-green (Africans): 4% —
Monochromacy: — —
Rod monochromacy
(disfunctional, abnormally
shaped or no cones): 0.00001% 0.00001%
Dichromacy: 2.4% 0.03%
Protanopia (L-cone absent): 1% to 1.3% 0.02%
Deuteranopia (M-cone absent): 1% to 1.2% 0.01%
Tritanopia (S-cone absent): 0.001% 0.03%
Anomalous Trichromacy: 6.3% 0.37%
Protanomaly (L-cone defect): 1.3% 0.02%
Deuteranomaly (M-cone defect): 5.0% 0.35%
Tritanomaly (S-cone defect): 0.01% 0.01%

8% of men suffer from color blindness
John Dalton chemist, meteorologist, and physicist was first to write a formally known paper on color blindness
It is illegal for color blind people who live in Romania and Turkey to have a driver’s license. The laws in those countries were implemented based on fear that color blind drivers could not read traffic signals.
Short Video
Links to test Color Blindess
The End
Problems in Medical Profession
Changes in body color
Rashes on the skin
Charts, slides, prints codes
Test-strips for blood and urine
Ophthalmoscopy - tests to see the inside of eye
Blood or bile in urine, faeces, vomit
Otoscopy - device used for ears
Full transcript