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Temperate Deciduous Forest (NJ)
Transcript of Temperate Deciduous Forest (NJ)
-30°C to 30°C, yearly average is 10°C, hot summers, cold winters
750 to 1,500 mm of rain per year
Broadleaf trees (oaks, maples, beeches), shrubs, perennial herbs, and mosses
Eastern United States, Canada, Europe, China, and Japan
Temperate deciduous forests are most notable because they go through four seasons. Leaves change color in autumn, fall off in the winter, and grow back in the spring; this adaptation allows plants to survive cold winters. Santa Cruz kangaroo Rat (Dipodomys venustus venustus )
This kangaroo rat lives in the Santa Cruz Sandhills of California and gets its name from its distinctive large hind legs.
In the past, this rare animal could be found in the mountains south of San Francisco, but populations been pushed to a single parcel in the Santa Cruz Mountains.
One of 23 subspecies of kangaroo rat found in California, the Santa Cruz variety is under a real threat of extinction.
This threat is because of dwindling populations and health problems stemming from low genetic diversity.
Their loss would be a withering blow to Santa Cruz mountains — the kangaroo rat is known as a keystone species that support many other species; its loss would send a ripple of damage through the entire food web. Multiflora Rose (Rosa Multiflora) Multiflora rose is native to eastern Asia.
It was brought to North America in the late nineteenth century to be used in horticultural plantings.
Since then it has been widely planted for a variety of reasons, including wildlife food and cover, erosion control, and as a living fence to border properties or pen livestock.
This prolific seed producer can create extremely dense, impenetrable paths that crowd out other vegetation.
Dense stands of multiflora rose can slow down forest regeneration: the species can dominate a forest understory. Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) It's a wood-boring beetle indigenous to countries in northeastern Asia.
In 2002, this invasive buprestid was identified as the killer of ash tree (Fraxinus spp.) in southeastern Michigan and nearby Windsor, Ontario.
Scientists now estimate that EAB was introduced during the early 1990’s from infested solid-wood packing materials such as pallets and crated used in international trade. Indicator Specie Oak (Quercus sp.) It's one of the dominant tree species in the deciduous forest, at least in North America. Many of the dominant species produce very large seeds; the large seed contains enough food to sustain the seedling as it grows up through the leaf litter into the shaded world of the forest floor. American Toad The toad, above, is a denizen of the forest floor, where it feeds on the many invertebrates which themselves feed on the decaying leaves that abound there. Among the most terrestrial of amphibians, toads still have a thin skin and depend on the high humidity (80-90%) of the forest floor to survive. Keystone Specie White-tailed Deer (odocoileus virginianus) The white-tailed deer is the most abundant wild ungulate (hoofed grazer) on the North American continent
Since European settlement the white-tailed deer has expanded its geographic range.
Deer play a significant role in limiting hemlock and Northern white cedar recruitment at a regional scale.
It's a keystone specie because itplays a critical role in maintaining the structure of an ecological community and whose impact on the community is greater than would be expected.
Deer also compete with small mammals like squirrels, for acorns and thus change the populations of these creatures as well. Puma (Felis concolor) Work Cited "Deciduous Forest." Home. Atlanta Botanical Garde, n.d. Web. 06 Jan. 2013. <http://www.atlantabotanicalgarden.org/kids-schools/educator-resources/deciduous-forest>. "Climate:." Temperate Deciduous Forest. Marietta College, n.d. Web.
04 Jan. 2013. <http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/tempded.htm>. Cozzens, Barbara. "What Are Temperate Deciduous Forest Animals?" EHow. Demand Media, 08 Feb. 2011. Web. 04 Jan. 2013. <http://www.ehow.com/info_7912033_temperate-deciduous-forest-animals.html>. Native trees in temperate forests include hickory(Carya), oak(Quercus), maple(Acer).Most of these trees are hardwoods that have high value as lumber. These trees lose their leaves in the fall and winter, providing insulation from the cold temperatures and snow. These are autotrophs.
Are essential in this biome because they provide shelter to many other animals.
Also provide food through decomposition of their leaves and direct ingestion by animals. Conservation biologists consider cougars to be a keystone species, meaning that their ecological influence is far greater than their mere numbers would suggest. In short, cougars have a potent and widespread ecological role even though they live in relatively low densities on the landscape.
The mountain lion is known by different names—cougar, puma, catamount, panther, and painter among many. The mountain lion is the largest of the small cats.
Mountain lions are obligate carnivores and feed only on meat. They are successful generalist predators and will eat any animal they can catch, from small rodents to large ungulates, even insects. They eat white tailed deer.
Where cougar populations have been severely reduced, eradicated or otherwise driven out by humans, researchers have found degraded ecosystems and diminished biodiversity.
Cougars are also known as umbrella species this because protecting habitat sufficient to support healthy populations of this wide-ranging animal helps afford protection for the numerous other species that use that habitat.