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Regulating Open and Distance E-learning: Challenges and Pro
Transcript of Regulating Open and Distance E-learning: Challenges and Pro
Juvy Lizette M. GERVACIO
University of the Philippines Open University
The increase in the demand to provide quality higher education in many countries worldwide led to the development and adoption of legislations, programs and strategies in order to address this concern, especially among developing countries
Regulating Open and Distance E-learning in the Philippines
The Commission on Higher Education (CHED): the lead agency that administers the developments pertaining to the area of open and distance education
3 technical panels: a) Technical Panel for Distance Education; b) Technical Committee for Transnational Education; and c) Technical Panels for the disciplines
CHED issues several policies related to distance education -- four major policies
discuss the existing regulatory policy of the Philippines regarding open and distance e-learning including the challenges and prospects
present good practices of the University of the Philippines Open University in implementing distance education courses
provide suggestions that could serve as inputs in the development of a more comprehensive policy to ensure quality open and distance e-learning in the country
discuss the salient features of the policies of the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) regarding distance education and e-learning
look into the features of the policies according to the following: policy issues, monitoring and evaluation, stakeholders' involvement, increasing awareness, capacity building
paper utilizes secondary materials like CHED Memorandum Orders and proposed bills
reviews written studies, reports, journals and other articles related to the policies on open and distance e-learning
CHED Order No. 7, series of 1995, Policies and Guidelines on Distance Education
Salient: definition of a program offered in DE mode: “at least half of the total number of hours required for a degree program is offered outside the confines of the formal classroom set-up where student-teacher contact is normally required.”
HEIs with Level III accreditation for academic program
CHED Memorandum Order No. 35, series of 2000, Updated Policies and Guidelines on Open Learning and Distance Education (OLDE)
Open learning - part of "alternative systems of education"
Definition of distance education modified: "“a mode of educational delivery whereby teacher and learner are separated in time and space and instruction is delivered through specially designed materials and methods and supported by organizational and administrative structures and arrangements.”
Percentage part in definition dropped.
CHED Memorandum Order No. 02 series of 2008, Policies, Standards and Guidelines (PSG) on Transnational Education (TNE)
adopted UNESCO’s/Council of Europe’s definition of TNE: “all types of higher education study programs, or sets of courses of study, or educational services (including distance education) in which the learners are located in a country different from the one where the awarding institution is based.”
The delivery could be distance education, blended mode, joint offerings, partner-delivered and branch modes consolidated.
The University of the Philippines Open University (UPOU): The Center of Excellence in Open and Distance Education
Established in February 23, 1995
recognized by the CHED as a pioneer in open and distance education
aims to provide quality higher and continuing education through distance education and e-learning
provides various academic programs, undergraduate and post-baccalaureate through its three faculties
MC and the Office of Academic Support and Instructional Services that continue to develop course materials as well as provide training to its faculty members and tutors
Gervacio (2012) tried to apply the criteria of the Open ECB Check Quality Assurance, a quality assurance Framework for courses/programs on UPOU and noted the following:
Challenges and Prospects
CHED Memorandum Order No. 27, Series of 2005. “Policies and Guidelines on Distance Education.”
CHED Memorandum Order No. 2, Series of 2008. “Policies, Standards, and Guidelines (PSG) on Transnational Education (TNE).”
Gervacio, Juvy Lizette, M., E-Learning for Lifelong Learning in the Philippines: Challenges and Prospects. (unpublished). Paper prepared and presented at the 1st International Conference on Open and Distance e-Learning in Manila, Philippines, 22-24 February 2012.
House Bill No. 4883. 2011. “Open Learning and Distance Education Act of 2011.” Congress of the Philippines, Fifteenth Congress, Second Regular Session.
Martin, Michaela. 2007. Cross-border Higher Education: Regulation, Quality Assurance and Impact, Vol. 1. Paris: International Institute for Educational Planning. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0015/001538/153897e.pdf
Senate Bill No. 928. 2010. “Open Learning and Distance Education System Act.” Fifteenth Congress of the Republic of the Philippines, First Regular Session.
Senate Bill No. 1060. 2010. “Open Tertiary Education Act of 2010.” Fifteenth Congress of the Republic of the Philippines, First Regular Session.
Teehankee, Benito L. 2008. “Transnational Education Policy in the Philippines: Perspectives and Issues.” Paper presented during the Capacity Building Seminar on Transnational Education Services, 24-26 September 2008, Manila, Philippines.
The rapid development and increasing use of information and communication technology has enabled people to work, communicate as well as learn in a borderless world.
Quality Assurance and Involvement of Stakeholders
Guiding Principles (Article III)
a) learner centeredness;
b) rigorous and sound instructional design;
c) transparency and peer review to guide informed choice;
d) public responsibility and accountability; and
e) quality and continuous improvement
only HEIs with any of the following are qualified to offer DE programs: (1) Level III Accreditation in the degree program applied for, or (2) CHED Center of Excellence (COE) status in the degree program applied for, or (3) certification of compliance with the CHED Quality Assurance System for Distance Education.
guidelines regarding the various components of DE: on the curriculum and delivery system, the instructional materials development, the delivery mode/strategies, and the student support services. (Article V)
Evidence requirements asked of HEIs applying for a government permit and for recognition to offer distance education programs. Criteria:
1. Institutional Qualification
2. Institutional Management and Commitment
3. Curriculum Development and Approval
4. Instructional Materials Development
5. Delivery Mode/Strategies
6. Student Assessment
7. Student Support Services
Monitoring and Evaluation
CHED Memorandum Order No. 37, series of 2005, Policies and Guidelines on Distance Education
incorporated the supervision of autonomous schools
Autonomous schools refer to those HEIs that have passed five key areas on governance and management; quality of teaching and research; support for students; relations with the community and management of resources
reinstituted the percentage requirement but at 25% of program units
barred distance mode for undergraduate programs
Process of Application for Government Authority to Offer Distance Education Programs
TPDE -- assist the CHED in ensuring the quality of the programs offered through DE by HEIs
tasked to assess the delivery system and instructional materials for DE and make recommendations for approval to the CHED
CMO no. 2, s. 2008 also defines the following with regard to transnational education:
The policy context for quality assurance;
The scope of government regulation;
The steps involved for registration of services;
The technical aspects surrounding the recognition of foreign higher education providers (FHEPs) and the courses/programs they are offering in the country;
The technical aspects pertaining to the recognition of Philippine HEIs operating TNE services; and
TNE terminologies, many of which are based on the UNESCO/Council of Europe definition of terms.
Institutional Relationships for Quality Assurance in Distance Education in the Philippines
Information and organization of program
Evaluation and Review
motivation, tutorial and learning materials, assignments and exams
Based on these observations, the UPOU observes self-regulation by instituting mechanisms that ensure quality in its courses and programs.
A review on the various policies issued by CHED reveals that there have been changes/amendments in order to meet the changing environment of the policy. However, there is still a need to come up with a stronger policy that sets the framework for open and distance e-learning.
Senate Bill 1060, “Open Tertiary Education Act of 2010”, 6 July 2010
Senate Bill 928, “Open Learning and Distance Education System Act”, 8 July 2010
HB 4883, “Open Learning and Distance Education Act of 2011”
Monitoring and Evaluation
there is a need to conduct more studies on how the technical panels are able to monitor the institutions offering distance education courses and programs
the maintenance of an updated data base is also important
there should be more interaction with other organizations like the Philippine e-Learning Society (PELs) and other institutions that offer e-learning courses
A mechanism should also be instituted where learners could provide feedback regarding the education that they get from open and distance e-learning
It seems that learners still have little information about open and distance e-learning.
An updated information about open and distance e-learning should also be posted in the website including list of accredited HEIs offering these courses
It is important that implementers are knowledgeable and skilled so they could implement the policy effectively and efficiently
A pool of peer reviewers should be trained in order to implement the policies effectively
The UPOU and PELs could be tapped to help in the capacity building of peer reviewers
Open Educational Resources/MOOCs/OOCs
The availability of open educational resources and massive open and online courses also affects the quality of online course materials
Hence, it is important that CHED also addresses the concerns about customization and contextualization of OERs
Indicators for quality assurance should be updated at least within three years.
The technical panels should be able to create task forces that will continue to update the indicators.
Moreover, a pool of peer reviewers should also be established.