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Universal Design of Learning
Transcript of Universal Design of Learning
(Universal Design of Learning)? Who are our students? How do we teach them all? How can teachers utilize UDL? What does UDL mean for our kids? So how do we get there? What inspired UDL?
Universal Design for Learning was inspired by the Universal Design movement in architecture (Laurette Education, Inc., 2010).
Architects began making building plans that would provide accessibility to buildings in various forms (stairs, ramps, double doors etc.)
UDL follows the same concept; the design of learning activities that can accessible to the varied learning needs (Laurette Education, Inc., 2010a). UDL is Research Based:
•All UDL Guidelines are research based.
•The educators and researchers at Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST) have compiled and organized the research.
•The research has evolved over a 10-year period and in 3 main stages (udlcenter.org, n.d.). Who is CAST?
A nonprofit leader in education, CAST works to improve opportunities and outcomes for all individuals through Universal Design for Learning (cast.org, n.d.). The Stages of UDL:
•Established a general framework for UDL and its guidelines.
•Framework was derived primarily from modern research in the learning sciences: cognitive science, cognitive neuroscience, neuropsychology, and neuroscience.
•The focus was on identifying the range and sources of variance in human learning.
•The three basic learning networks and principles of UDL were derived during this stage (udlcenter.org, n.d.) Stage Two
•This stage better defined the three basic principles, identifying the most important categories within them.
•The review of the research during this stage led to the development of the nine UDL Guidelines (udlcenter.org, n.d.) Stage Three
• This stage involved over three years of extensive reviews of the educational research to identify those specific practices that are most effective in reducing barriers to instruction in each of the principles.
• First existing reviews and meta-analyses of research and best practices were gathered.
• Then, extensive secondary searches of the literature using keywords and concepts suggested by the meta-analysis and reviews were conducted.
• Close to 1,000 articles were reviewed and selected for inclusion in the evidence base used for the UDL guidelines (udlcenter.org, n.d.). Learners differ in the ways that they perceive and comprehend information that is presented to them.
Sensory Disabilities (blindness or deafness)
Learning Disabilities (dyslexia)
Cognitive Disabilities (Autism Spectrum Disorder)
Efficient Learners (gifted)
Learning, and transfer of learning, occurs when multiple representations are used.
This approach allows students to make connections within, as well as between, concepts (udlcenter.org, n.d.). The purpose of this facet is to ensure that alternative representations are provided not only for accessibility, but for clarity and comprehensibility across all learners.
An illustration may be informative to one learner and inaccessible or puzzling to another
A picture or image that carries meaning for some learners may carry very different meanings for learners from differing cultural or familial backgrounds (udlcenter.org, n.d.)
This goal is accomplished through 5 checkpoints. The purpose of this facet is to teach learners how to transform accessible information into useable knowledge.
Constructing useable knowledge, knowledge that is accessible for future decision-making
Proper design and presentation of information should provide the scaffolds necessary to ensure that all learners have access to knowledge (udlcenter.org, n.d.).
This goal is accomplished through 4 checkpoints. Checkpoint 1.1 - Offer ways of customizing the display of information.
•The size of text, images, graphs, tables, or other visual content
•The speed or timing of video, animation, sound, simulations, etc. The purpose of this facet is to reduce barriers to learning; key information should be equally perceptible to all learners by:
1.Provide the same information through different modalities
2.Provide information in a format that will allow for adjustability by the user
a.Text that can be enlarged
b.Sounds that can be amplified (udlcenter.org, n.d.)
This goal is accomplished through 3 checkpoints Checkpoint 1.2 - Offer alternatives for auditory information.
Use text equivalents in the form of captions or automated speech-to-text (voice recognition) for spoken language
Provide visual diagrams, charts, notations of music or sound
Provide American Sign Language (ASL) for spoken English Checkpoint 1.3 – Offer alternatives for visual information
Provide descriptions (text or spoken) for all images, graphics, video, or animations
Use touch equivalents (tactile graphics or objects of reference) for key visuals that represent concepts
Provide auditory cues for key concepts and transitions in visual information (udlcenter.org, n.d.) Checkpoint 2.1 – Clarify vocabulary and symbols
Pre-teach vocabulary and symbols, especially in ways that promote connection to the learners’ experience and prior knowledge
Provide graphic symbols with alternative text descriptions
$ (dollar), = (equals), < (less than)
Embed support for vocabulary and symbols within the text hyperlinks or footnotes to definitions, explanations, illustrations, previous coverage, translations) Checkpoint 2.2 – Clarify syntax and structure
Make relationships between elements explicit (e.g., highlighting the transition words in an essay, links between ideas in a concept map, etc.) Checkpoint 2.3 – Support decoding text, mathematical notations and symbols
Use automatic voicing with digital mathematical notation such as Math ML
Use digital text with an accompanying human voice recording such as Daisy Talking Books (udlcenter.org, n.d.) Checkpoint 2.4 – Promote understanding across languages
Make all key information in the dominant language (e.g., English) also available in first languages (e.g., Spanish) for learners with limited-English proficiency and in ASL for learners who are deaf
Provide electronic translation tools or links to multilingual glossaries on the web
Embed visual, non-linguistic supports for vocabulary clarification (pictures, videos, etc) Checkpoint 2.5 – Illustrate through multiple media
Present key concepts in one form of symbolic representation such as an expository text or a math equation
Alternative forms such as an illustration, dance/movement, diagram, table, model, video, comic strip, storyboard, photograph, animation, physical or virtual manipulative (udlcenter.org, n.d.) Checkpoint 3.1 – Activate or supply background knowledge
Use advanced organizers (e.g., KWL methods, concept maps)
Pre-teach critical prerequisite concepts through demonstration or models (udlecenter.org, n.d.) Checkpoint 3.2 – Highlight patterns, critical features, big ideas, and relationships
Use outlines, graphic organizers, unit organizer routines, concept organizer routines, and concept mastery routines to emphasize key ideas and relationships (udlcenter.org, n.d.) Checkpoint 3.3 – Guide information processing, visualization, and manipulation
Provide interactive models that guide exploration and new understandings
“Chunk” information into smaller elements (udlcenter.org, n.d.) Checkpoint 3.4 – Maximize transfer and generalization
Provide checklists, organizers, sticky notes, electronic reminders
Prompt the use of mnemonic strategies and devices (e.g., visual imagery, paraphrasing strategies, method of loci, etc.)
Provide explicit, supported opportunities to generalize learning to new situations (e.g., different types of problems that can be solved with linear equations, using physics principles to build a playground) III. Provide Multiple Means of Engagement 1. Recruit interest
2. Sustain effort & persistence
3. Self-regulate HOW do we do this?
You have to get to know your
students' personalities. Students differ when it comes to studying.
We must differentiate. Independent VS. Group Work Spontaneity
Routine Recruiting Interest Teachers should always have alternative ways to recruit interest in ways that reach individual students and personalities 1. Optimize individual choice.
2. Optimize relevance, value, and authenticity 3.2 Sustain Effort & Persistence When motivated students can regulate attention and sustain studying & concentration. Unfortunately, not all students are intrinsically motivated, so educators need to offer support until intrinsic motivation is learned. 1. Heighten salience of goals.
2. Vary demand/resources to optimize challenges.
3. Foster collaboration & communication
4. Increase mastery 3.3 Provide Options for Self-Regulation Educators should teach students to develop learners intrinsic motivation and ability to self-regulate. This is CRITICAL 1. Promote expectations that optimize motivation
2. Facilitates personal skills & strategies.
3. Develop self-assessment February 7, 2012
UDL was praised by Chairman Senator Harkin & Superintendent of Bartholomew Consolidated School Corporation in Indiana at HELP Committee hearing. How do we use UDL today? Principle II
Provide Multiple Means of Action and Expression
Individuals differ in the ways that they can navigate a learning environment and express what they know
•significant movement impairments – cerebal palsy
•strategic and organizational abilities – executive function disorders
Action and expression require a great deal of strategy, practice, and organization (udlcenter.org, n.d.)
There are 3 facets that aim to achieve this goal:
1. Physical Action
2. Expressive Skills and Fluency
3. Executive Function Checkpoint 4.1 – Vary responses for and navigation
Provide alternatives for physically responding or indicating selections.
Alternatives to marking with pen and pencil
Alternatives to mouse control
Provide alternatives for physically interacting with materials by hand, voice, single switch, joystick, keyboard, or adapted keyboard
Checkpoint 4.2 – Optimize access to tools and assistive technology
Customize overlays for touch screens and keyboards (udlcenter.org, n.d.) Checkpoint 5.1 – Use multiple media for communication
Use social media and interactive web tools:
Compose in multiple media such as:
Video (udlcenter.org, n.d.) Checkpoint 5.2 - Use multiple tools for construction and composition
Provide spellcheckers, grammar checkers, word prediction software
Provide Text-To-Speech software (voice recognition), human dictation, recording
Provide calculators, graphing calculators, geometric sketchpads, or pre-formatted graph paper Checkpoint 5.3 - Build fluencies with graduated levels of support for practice and performance
Provide differentiated mentors
teachers/tutors who use different approaches to motivate
feedback or inform
Provide scaffolds that can be gradually released with increasing independence and skills-embedded into digital reading and writing software (udlcenter.org, n.d.) Checkpoint 6.1 – Guide appropriate goal setting
Provide guides and checklists for scaffolding goal-setting
Post goals, objectives, and schedules in an obvious place Checkpoint 6.2 – Support planning and strategy development
Provide checklists and project planning templates for understanding the problem, setting up prioritization, sequences, and schedules of steps
Embed coaches or mentors that model think-alouds of the process (udlcenter.org, 2013) Checkpoint 6.3 – Facilitating managing information and resources
Provide graphic organizers and templates for data collection and organizing information
Embed prompts for categorizing and systematizing
Provide checklists and guides for note-taking Checkpoint 6.4 – Enhance capacity for monitoring progress
Use templates that guide self-reflection on quality and completeness
Provide differentiated models of self-assessment strategies
peer feedback (udlcenter.org, 2013) United States Implementation Current Curriculum Trends References 2 How do you learn? What is UDL
(Universal Design of Learning)? Who are our students? Presentation By:
Sharlene Wilkinson In June 2012, the Maryland Department of Education proposed and the Maryland State Board of Education adopted regulations that require ALL local districts to use UDL in the development of curriculum and selection of instructional materials beginning in the 2014-2015 school year The U.S. Department of Education has released a new National Educational Technology Plan that guides the use of information and communication technologies in transforming American education. The Plan provides a set of concrete goals that can inform state and local educational technology plans as well as inspire research, development, and innovation. UDL is referred to throughout that Plan to ensure that technology be used to optimize the diversity of learners. UDL and Technology
in the Classroom... UDL is an approach to learning in which curriculum designers have considered the scope of STUDENT ABILITIES and LEARNING STYLES, taking into account varying abilities to see, hear, speak, move, read, write, comprehend English, attend, organize, engage, and remember. UDL provides a blueprint for creating instructional goals, methods, materials, and assessments that work for everyone--not a single, one-size-fits-all solution but rather flexible approaches that can be customized and adjusted for individual needs. By definition, universal design for learning (UDL) is the design of instructional materials and methods that makes learning goals achievable by individuals with wide differences in their abilities. Universal design is ATTAINED by means of flexible curricular materials and activities that provide alternatives for students (Unknown, Universal Design Definition, 2013). Effective use of the materials requires that the teacher be familiar with the various teaching strategies necessary to reach students of widely varying abilities, and many teachers are NOT (Unknown, Universal Design Definition, 2013). We look at what every individual
student needs in order to do their best. Where is UDL headed? In Summary...
UDL uses representation, action & expression, and engagement to think
of the each
individually. UDL is already in our classrooms. We just need to make sure it is
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UDL can serve as a foundation or guideline to best support an Exceptional Student.
Rarely are there specific lesson plans for special education as all students are different.
Teachers take existing lesson plans and provide either accommodations or modifications to enable the student with special education to have optimum success. UDL is a great resource for instructors who actively make special accommodations to support students with special needs in the inclusive classroom.