Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Navigating ESL Methodology

No description
by

Lilia Angelova

on 4 November 2016

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Navigating ESL Methodology

A Summary of TESOL Theory
The implication of the natural order hypothesis is that a language syllabus should
NOT
be based on the order found in the studies. In fact, he rejects grammatical sequencing when the goal is language acquisition.

The Natural Approach simulates the
experience of L1 acquisition - child
. The ‘
silent period
’ for example, during which time speaking is not important. Students speak when they are ‘ready’ – first
comprehension
then
speech production
.
Deep-end CLT
Navigating TESOL Methodology
An Integrated Approach
- Grammar Translation
- Audio-Lingualism
- Humanistic Approaches
- Krashen's Natural Approach
- Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)
* Harmer's Balanced Method*
Behaviourist Theory
Audio-Lingualism
Heavy Grammar
translation practice= reading and writing
The Grammar-Translation Method
Established in Germany (1780s)
Cognitive Theory
Krashen's Natural Approach
Cognitive Theory + Humanistic Approach
- little focus on grammar
- focus on
functional
phrases
- strong emphasis
on using functional
language in
social
situations
Lexical Approach
- focus on structures and patterns
(
NOT grammar rules
)
- first model (audiotape, CD) then
drilling: repeat after me... repeat
- listening and speaking
Humanistic Approaches
- holistic teaching
-
learner-centred
; teacher-decentred
- addresses affective issues
(stress, anxiety, self-confidence)
-
learner autonomy
through inductive methods=
guided discovery
Zero Grammar
Shallow-end CLT
Harmer's Method
Silent Way
Total Physical Response
Krashen's Five Hypotheses
Speaking
Writing
'The Army Method'
exclusive focus on grammar rules (
form-focused
) and memorizing wordlists
NO
Speaking
Listening
The Natural Order Hypothesis
The Input Hypothesis
We acquire language (in only one way) by receiving
comprehensible input
. This input is more or less understandable but at a higher level than the Ss can produce =one step beyond his/her current stage of linguistic competence.
Acquisition vs Learning
We acquire the rules of language in a
predictable order
.

Some grammatical structures tend to be acquired early while others late. The natural order of acquisition cannot be influenced by
direct teaching
of features that the learner is not yet ready to acquire.
Conscious Learning
strong emphasis on exposing learners to language – to
maximise input
= movies, videos, music, newspapers, articles, books, anecdotes etc.
Comprehensible input =
=
Acquisition
Acquisition is a
subconscious process
and results in spontaneous language output =‘using language for real communication’.

It requires
meaningful contexts
and natural interactions. Ss focus on
communicating effectively = 'knowing a language'
Learning is a
conscious process
: structured (formal instruction) and
form-focused
(TL selected and presented).

Krashen: ‘
knowing about a language'
– grammar rules
(noun/verb/adjective;
present simple tense etc).
The role of conscious learning is somewhat
limited
in second language performance.
FOCUS ON MEANING
FOCUS ON FORM
Focus on Form
In traditional methods (audio-lingual; grammar-transation), the emphasis on accuracy may benefit some Ss but leave others frustrated/ limited conversational skills.

Ss make slow progress on complex and more accurate language without focus on form =
fossilization
of errors. Form-focused instruction and corrective feedback assist Ss growth and continued development in L2.
Focus on Meaning
Ss progress in
comprehension
and production but
many have difficulty with basic grammatical structures in the approaches of: "
Just Listen (and read)
" (
Krashen's comprehensible input
) and '
Let's talk
'
communicative
teaching.
NO benefit+ interfere with SLA
The Implications of Research for Teaching
NO focus on form
(grammatical structures, vocab, pron)
NO corrective feedback
from T
The Monitor Hypothesis
The Affective Filter Hypothesis
The monitor= explains the relationship between learning and acquisition. While acquisition initiates
language output
,
conscious learning
only performs the role of
monitor
or editor. The 'monitor' acts in a planning, editing and
correcting function
when

Ss have sufficient time
Ss focus on form or think about correctness
Ss know the grammatical rule.

The role of the monitor should be - minor, used only to correct deviations from 'normal' speech and to give speech a more 'polished' appearance.
Variations of monitor use:

over-users
: Ss use the 'monitor' all the time e.g.
introverts
,
lack of self-confidence, perfectionists
=> Asian Ss
under-users:
Ss who have not learned or who prefer not to use their conscious knowledge.e.g.extroverts/dominant personalities
optimal users:
Ss who use the 'monitor' appropriately.
The Monitor
A mental block caused by affective [
emotional] factors
that
prevent input
from reaching the internal
language acquisition device [LAD]
. Input may be filtered out because of
anxiety, poor self-esteem or low motivation
. A stress-free environment is thus vital to acquisition.
Krashen's Model of SLA
Comprehensible input
Unconscious '
ACQUISITION
' of grammar knowledge
OUTPUT
FOCUS ON MEANING
FOCUS ON FORM
Conscious 'LEARNING' of grammar
I am born
in 1990.
was
Conscious grammar knowledge
INPUT
monitor
The Interface vs Non-Interface Position
Unlike
Krashen's non-interface position
, the interface position states that although the S possesses different kinds of L2 knowledge, these are
not entirely separate
. The result=
seepage
occurs between conscious knowledge and unconscious knowledge (Ellis, 236).
A Strong Interface Position:
1. 'implicit knowledge' = unconscious acquisition/ internalization
2. practice turns explicit/taught language into implicit knowledge. Thus, explicit knowledge is
practised
until it is
automatised
. (S uses language
spontaneously
/automatically).
(Bialystok 1981; Sharwood-Smith (1981)
Conscious/ Learnt
Acquired
Am I ... ?
Is you hungry?
Yes, I am hungry!
Student factors:

age

metalinguistic awareness

An exclusive emphasis on
accuracy/ fluency/ comprehension
alone = limited success. We do not find support that language acquisition will 'take care of itself' if Ss simply focus on meaning = comprehensible input.

Strongest approach
: integrates focus on form within communicative and content-based programs. Ts must provide guided, form-based instruction and correction in specific contexts.
a balance between form-focused and meaning-focused activities.
The Challenge:
prior educational experiences
motivation
Harmer's Model
the interface
=Krashen's comprehensible input
PPP
PRESENT = MFP
- functional lang; pron
= need error correction
= delayed error correction
PRACTICE
1. controlled
2. guided/less-controlled
3. freer practice
personalize TL
Writing
Speaking
= personalization
= activate Ss language store (schemata)
PRODUCE
Harmer's Model: Input/ Output
Finely-tuned
/
Roughly-tuned
?
Audio/ video tapes in coursebooks

Native speakers in person

Native speaker media:news, radio, music, films

Reading and pedagogic texts

The teacher

finely-tuned +
roughly-tuned
INPUT:
roughly-tuned
finely-tuned +
roughly-tuned
finely-tuned +
roughly-tuned
roughly-tuned
Any questions?
Full transcript