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Navigating ESL Methodology
Transcript of Navigating ESL Methodology
The implication of the natural order hypothesis is that a language syllabus should
be based on the order found in the studies. In fact, he rejects grammatical sequencing when the goal is language acquisition.
Navigating TESOL Methodology
An Integrated Approach
- Grammar Translation
- Humanistic Approaches
- Krashen's Natural Approach
- Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)
* Harmer's Balanced Method*
translation practice= reading and writing
The Grammar-Translation Method
Established in Germany (1780s)
Krashen's Natural Approach
Cognitive Theory + Humanistic Approach
- little focus on grammar
- focus on
- strong emphasis
on using functional
- focus on structures and patterns
NOT grammar rules
- first model (audiotape, CD) then
drilling: repeat after me... repeat
- listening and speaking
- holistic teaching 'teaching the student NOT teaching the lang'
- addresses affective issues
(stress, anxiety, self-confidence)
through experiential learning=
(INDUCTIVE = rule discovery; trial & error)
Krashen's Five Hypotheses
'The Army Method'
exclusive focus on grammar rules (
) and memorizing wordlists
The Natural Order Hypothesis
The Input Hypothesis
We acquire language (in only one way) by receiving
Acquisition/ Learning Hypothesis
We acquire the rules of language in a
strong emphasis on exposing learners to language to
Comprehensible input =
Acquisition is an
and results in
spontaneous language output
Learning is a
: structured (formal instruction) and
(TL structures selected and presented).
FOCUS ON MEANING
FOCUS ON FORM
Focus on Form
In traditional methods (
), the emphasis on accuracy may benefit some Ss but leave others frustrated/ limited conversational skills.
Focus on Meaning
Ss progress in
but many have difficulty with basic grammatical structures in the approaches of:
The Implications of Research for Teaching
NO focus on form
(grammatical structures, vocab, pron)
The Monitor Hypothesis
The Affective Filter Hypothesis
The monitor= explains the relationship between learning and acquisition. While acquisition initiates
only performs the role of
or editor. The 'monitor' acts in a planning, editing and
Ss who use the 'monitor' appropriately.
Variations of Monitor Use
A mental block caused by affective [
from reaching the internal
language acquisition device [LAD]
Krashen's Model of SLA
' of grammar knowledge
FOCUS ON MEANING
FOCUS ON FORM
Conscious 'LEARNING' of grammar
I am born
Conscious grammar knowledge
The Interface vs Non-Interface Position
Krashen's non-interface position
, the interface position states that although the S possesses different kinds of L2 knowledge, these are
not entirely separate
A Strong Interface Position:
1. 'implicit knowledge' => unconscious acquisition/ internalization
Am I ... ?
Is you hungry?
Yes, I am hungry!
An exclusive emphasis on
= limited success.
a balance between form-focused and meaning-focused activities.
prior educational experiences
=Krashen's comprehensible input
PRESENT = MFP
- functional lang; pron
= need error correction
= delayed error correction
3. freer practice
= activate Ss language store (schemata)
Harmer's Model: Input/ Output
Audio/ video tapes in coursebooks
Native speakers in person
Native speaker media:news, radio, music, films
Reading and pedagogic texts
Krashen, S. & Terrell, T.
The Natural Approach: Language Acquisition in the Classroom
Terrell develops 'The Natural Approach' (1977)
Krashen's Natural Order Hypothesis vs Grammar Syllabus
I am reading (now).
CLT = Communicative Language Teaching
Some grammatical structures tend to be acquired early while others late. The
natural order of acquisition cannot be influenced by direct teaching
of features that the learner is not yet ready to acquire.
The Natural Approach simulates the
experience of L1 acquisition - child
. The ‘
’ for example, during which time speaking is not important. Students speak when they are ‘ready’ – first
= more or less understandable but at a higher level than the Ss can produce
=one step beyond his/her current stage of linguistic competence
= movies, videos, music, newspapers, articles, books, anecdotes etc.
(i = 5)
NOT = i + 20
i = 4
and natural interactions. Ss focus on
= 'knowing a language'
=‘using language for real communication’.
knowing about a language'
e.g. grammar rules; (noun/verb/adjective; present simple tense etc).
The role of conscious learning is somewhat
in second language performance.
The role of the monitor should be - minor, used only to correct deviations from 'normal' speech and to give speech a more 'polished' appearance.
Ss have sufficient time
Ss know the grammatical rule
Ss focus on form or think about correctness
Ss use the 'monitor' all the time e.g.
lack of self-confidence or poor self-esteem; perfectionists
Ss who have not learned the rules or who prefer not to use their conscious knowledge e.g.
extroverts; dominant personalities
Input may be filtered out because of
anxiety, poor self-esteem or low motivation.
is thus vital to acquisition.
= humanistic approach
= non-interface position
2. practice turns explicit/taught language into implicit knowledge. Thus, explicit knowledge is
until it is
. (S uses language
(Bialystok 1981; Sharwood-Smith (1981)
occurs between conscious knowledge and unconscious knowledge (Ellis, 236).
Krashen's Monitor Model - An Overview
- developed within the
of language learning
- made SLA theory
to non-specialists and teachers
- the most comprehensive theory (at that point in time) -> explained all aspects of SLA
- immediately applicable = translated into a teaching methodology 'The Natural Approach'.
2 distinct, seperate ways of developing knowledge
=> 2 distinct, separate kinds of language knowledge
= unconscious development of language
= without formal instruction (not attending to grammar rules)
focus is on the content = getting a message across
L2 acquisition = L1 acquisition
= formal development of language through grammar instruction
Acquisition = LAD processing comprehensible input
Only acquired knowledge produces spontaneous output = genuine communication
'learnt' knowledge does not produce genuine communication output
=> not used in speaking
'learnt' knowledge = only one function (limited + limiting) = MONITOR
monitor = checks, edits, repairs the output of acquired lang
= more active = writing
comprehension -> production
lang acquisition is an implicit process in which linguistic rules (knowledge) are internalised through extensive exposure to authentic texts + comprehensible input that provides an appropriate level of challenge to the listener
the monitor = a conscious process in which the learner applies grammatical rules to language output (oral or written). highly deliberate form of processing
When parents do correct children...
Children learn a language
without explicit grammar focus
(or analysis) + ['correction']
=> adult L2 Ss will too!
Assumes L2 = L1 Acquisition
+ other + spoon
other + spoon
the + other + spoon
Implications for teaching
1. If L2 is 'acquired' unconsciously (L2= L1), just as we acquired our first lang (as children) ->
then make the L2 classroom mirror the L1 learning environment.
Ss will focus on
listening (and comprehension) -> not production.
= allow for a
2. No conscious attention to form or teaching rules
= zero grammar
Ss focus on = vocabulary
3. T's role: to maximise & enrich input
= must follow the 'i+1' formula
= made comprehensible
4. Allow 'silent time' for learners to internally process input and formulate rules.
Let the LAD take care of language acquisition
= do not rush output!
5. Follow the 'natural order' of acquisition => 'acquisition syllabus'
6. Lower Ss 'affective filter'
Critical Responses and Challenges to Krashen
checks/corrects/repairs errors in speech
Contemporary Criticism of Krashen
L2 Learning = L1 Learning
the nature of child cognition is
not the same
as adult cognitive processing
children's capacity for unconscious learning is greater
our thinking becomes
logical, analytical, systematic
the onset of '
formal operations' stage
in adolescence leads to greaters levels of
meta-awareness & meta-cognition
=> there is a place for grammar focus
= favours conscious learning
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
Critical Responses and Challenges to Krashen
The interface position vs Krashen's non-interface position
Critical Responses Continued
Krashen states that
separate; distinct; unrelated
-> Learnt (conscious) knowledge cannot be converted into acquired knowledge
= become automatic
Bialystok (1979; 1981)
for consciously learnt knowledge to
of unconscious language knowledge
AND be used in communication output
= there is a channel between unconscious <-> conscious knowledge
=> there is a place for conscious learning of language
Focus on meaning
Focus on form
Total Physical Response
Ss make slow progress on complex and more accurate language without focus on form =
assist Ss growth and continued development in L2.
NO corrective feedback from T
Krashen = NO benefit + just interferes with SLA
"Just Listen (and read)" (Krashen's Natural Approach)
Deep-end/strong version of 'Let's talk' communicative language teaching (CLT)
integrate focus on form within communicative and task-based programs.
SLA research does not support that language acquisition will '
take care of itself
' if Ss simply focus on meaning = comprehensible input.
Ts must provide guided, form-based instruction and correction in meaningful (and authentic) contexts.
Individual Learner Factors:
A Post-Method Era
'established teaching practice'
Flexible teachers = adapt
= Oxbridge monopoly
= some attention to grammar is useful for adult Ss?
repetition = automatization (practice =useful)?
TL = only language of instruction?
emphasis on the heard+ spoken language = useful?
Humanistic (Suggestopedia; Silent Way; TPR)
= low-stress/ low-anxiety learning
= learner-centred; T's role is reduced
= increases STT (student talk time)
= self-discovery method (inductive approach)
allows a period of silent assimilation before production