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Navigating ESL Methodology
Transcript of Navigating ESL Methodology
The implication of the natural order hypothesis is that a language syllabus should
be based on the order found in the studies. In fact, he rejects grammatical sequencing when the goal is language acquisition.
The Natural Approach simulates the
experience of L1 acquisition - child
. The ‘
’ for example, during which time speaking is not important. Students speak when they are ‘ready’ – first
Navigating TESOL Methodology
An Integrated Approach
- Grammar Translation
- Humanistic Approaches
- Krashen's Natural Approach
- Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)
* Harmer's Balanced Method*
translation practice= reading and writing
The Grammar-Translation Method
Established in Germany (1780s)
Krashen's Natural Approach
Cognitive Theory + Humanistic Approach
- little focus on grammar
- focus on
- strong emphasis
on using functional
- focus on structures and patterns
NOT grammar rules
- first model (audiotape, CD) then
drilling: repeat after me... repeat
- listening and speaking
- holistic teaching
- addresses affective issues
(stress, anxiety, self-confidence)
through inductive methods=
Total Physical Response
Krashen's Five Hypotheses
'The Army Method'
exclusive focus on grammar rules (
) and memorizing wordlists
The Natural Order Hypothesis
The Input Hypothesis
We acquire language (in only one way) by receiving
. This input is more or less understandable but at a higher level than the Ss can produce =one step beyond his/her current stage of linguistic competence.
Acquisition vs Learning
We acquire the rules of language in a
Some grammatical structures tend to be acquired early while others late. The natural order of acquisition cannot be influenced by
of features that the learner is not yet ready to acquire.
strong emphasis on exposing learners to language – to
= movies, videos, music, newspapers, articles, books, anecdotes etc.
Comprehensible input =
Acquisition is a
and results in spontaneous language output =‘using language for real communication’.
and natural interactions. Ss focus on
communicating effectively = 'knowing a language'
Learning is a
: structured (formal instruction) and
(TL selected and presented).
knowing about a language'
– grammar rules
present simple tense etc).
The role of conscious learning is somewhat
in second language performance.
FOCUS ON MEANING
FOCUS ON FORM
Focus on Form
In traditional methods (audio-lingual; grammar-transation), the emphasis on accuracy may benefit some Ss but leave others frustrated/ limited conversational skills.
Ss make slow progress on complex and more accurate language without focus on form =
of errors. Form-focused instruction and corrective feedback assist Ss growth and continued development in L2.
Focus on Meaning
Ss progress in
and production but
many have difficulty with basic grammatical structures in the approaches of: "
Just Listen (and read)
Krashen's comprehensible input
) and '
NO benefit+ interfere with SLA
The Implications of Research for Teaching
NO focus on form
(grammatical structures, vocab, pron)
NO corrective feedback
The Monitor Hypothesis
The Affective Filter Hypothesis
The monitor= explains the relationship between learning and acquisition. While acquisition initiates
only performs the role of
or editor. The 'monitor' acts in a planning, editing and
Ss have sufficient time
Ss focus on form or think about correctness
Ss know the grammatical rule.
The role of the monitor should be - minor, used only to correct deviations from 'normal' speech and to give speech a more 'polished' appearance.
Variations of monitor use:
: Ss use the 'monitor' all the time e.g.
lack of self-confidence, perfectionists
=> Asian Ss
Ss who have not learned or who prefer not to use their conscious knowledge.e.g.extroverts/dominant personalities
Ss who use the 'monitor' appropriately.
A mental block caused by affective [
from reaching the internal
language acquisition device [LAD]
. Input may be filtered out because of
anxiety, poor self-esteem or low motivation
. A stress-free environment is thus vital to acquisition.
Krashen's Model of SLA
' of grammar knowledge
FOCUS ON MEANING
FOCUS ON FORM
Conscious 'LEARNING' of grammar
I am born
Conscious grammar knowledge
The Interface vs Non-Interface Position
Krashen's non-interface position
, the interface position states that although the S possesses different kinds of L2 knowledge, these are
not entirely separate
. The result=
occurs between conscious knowledge and unconscious knowledge (Ellis, 236).
A Strong Interface Position:
1. 'implicit knowledge' = unconscious acquisition/ internalization
2. practice turns explicit/taught language into implicit knowledge. Thus, explicit knowledge is
until it is
. (S uses language
(Bialystok 1981; Sharwood-Smith (1981)
Am I ... ?
Is you hungry?
Yes, I am hungry!
An exclusive emphasis on
accuracy/ fluency/ comprehension
alone = limited success. We do not find support that language acquisition will 'take care of itself' if Ss simply focus on meaning = comprehensible input.
: integrates focus on form within communicative and content-based programs. Ts must provide guided, form-based instruction and correction in specific contexts.
a balance between form-focused and meaning-focused activities.
prior educational experiences
=Krashen's comprehensible input
PRESENT = MFP
- functional lang; pron
= need error correction
= delayed error correction
3. freer practice
= activate Ss language store (schemata)
Harmer's Model: Input/ Output
Audio/ video tapes in coursebooks
Native speakers in person
Native speaker media:news, radio, music, films
Reading and pedagogic texts