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Navigating ESL Methodology

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Lilia Angelova

on 6 September 2018

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Transcript of Navigating ESL Methodology

An Overview of TESOL Methodology
The implication of the natural order hypothesis is that a language syllabus should
NOT
be based on the order found in the studies. In fact, he rejects grammatical sequencing when the goal is language acquisition.
Deep-end CLT
Navigating TESOL Methodology
An Integrated Approach
- Grammar Translation
- Audio-Lingualism
- Humanistic Approaches
- Krashen's Natural Approach
- Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)
* Harmer's Balanced Method*
Behaviourist Theory
Audio-Lingualism
Heavy Grammar
translation practice= reading and writing
The Grammar-Translation Method
Established in Germany (1780s)
Cognitive Theory
Krashen's Natural Approach
Cognitive Theory + Humanistic Approach
- little focus on grammar
- focus on
functional
phrases
- strong emphasis
on using functional
language in
social
situations
Lexical Approach
- focus on structures and patterns
(
NOT grammar rules
)
- first model (audiotape, CD) then
drilling: repeat after me... repeat
- listening and speaking
Humanistic Approaches
- holistic teaching 'teaching the student NOT teaching the lang'
-
learner-centred
; teacher-decentred
- addresses affective issues
(stress, anxiety, self-confidence)
-
learner autonomy
through experiential learning=
guided discovery
(INDUCTIVE = rule discovery; trial & error)
Zero Grammar
Shallow-end CLT
Harmer's Method
Silent Way
Krashen's Five Hypotheses
Speaking
Writing
'The Army Method'
exclusive focus on grammar rules (
form-focused
) and memorizing wordlists
NO
Speaking
Listening
The Natural Order Hypothesis
The Input Hypothesis
We acquire language (in only one way) by receiving
comprehensible input
.
Acquisition/ Learning Hypothesis
We acquire the rules of language in a
predictable order
.
Conscious Learning
strong emphasis on exposing learners to language to
maximise input

Comprehensible input =
=
ACQUISITION
Acquisition is an
unconscious process
and results in
spontaneous language output
Learning is a
conscious process
: structured (formal instruction) and
form-focused
(TL structures selected and presented).
FOCUS ON MEANING
FOCUS ON FORM
Focus on Form
In traditional methods (
audio-lingual; grammar-translation
), the emphasis on accuracy may benefit some Ss but leave others frustrated/ limited conversational skills.
Focus on Meaning
Ss progress in
comprehension
and speech
production
but many have difficulty with basic grammatical structures in the approaches of:
The Implications of Research for Teaching
NO focus on form

(grammatical structures, vocab, pron)
The Monitor Hypothesis
The Affective Filter Hypothesis
The monitor= explains the relationship between learning and acquisition. While acquisition initiates
language output
,
conscious learning
only performs the role of
monitor
or editor. The 'monitor' acts in a planning, editing and
correcting function
when:
Ss who use the 'monitor' appropriately.
Variations of Monitor Use
A mental block caused by affective [
emotional] factors
that
prevent input
from reaching the internal
language acquisition device [LAD]
.
Krashen's Model of SLA
Comprehensible input
Unconscious '
ACQUISITION
' of grammar knowledge
OUTPUT
FOCUS ON MEANING
FOCUS ON FORM
Conscious 'LEARNING' of grammar
I am born
in 1990.
was
Conscious grammar knowledge
INPUT
monitor
The Interface vs Non-Interface Position
Unlike
Krashen's non-interface position
, the interface position states that although the S possesses different kinds of L2 knowledge, these are
not entirely separate
.
A Strong Interface Position:
1. 'implicit knowledge' => unconscious acquisition/ internalization
Conscious/ Learnt
Acquired
Am I ... ?
Is you hungry?
Yes, I am hungry!
metalinguistic awareness
An exclusive emphasis on
accuracy
/
fluency
/
comprehension
alone
= limited success.
a balance between form-focused and meaning-focused activities.
The Challenge:
prior educational experiences
motivation
Harmer's Model
the interface
=Krashen's comprehensible input
PPP
PRESENT = MFP
- functional lang; pron
= need error correction
= delayed error correction
PRACTICE
1. controlled
2. guided/less-controlled
3. freer practice
personalize TL
Writing
Speaking
= personalization
= activate Ss language store (schemata)
PRODUCE
Harmer's Model: Input/ Output
Finely-tuned
/
Roughly-tuned
?
Audio/ video tapes in coursebooks

Native speakers in person

Native speaker media:news, radio, music, films

Reading and pedagogic texts

The teacher

finely-tuned +
roughly-tuned
INPUT:
roughly-tuned
finely-tuned +
roughly-tuned
finely-tuned +
roughly-tuned
roughly-tuned
Any questions?
Stephen Krashen
Tracy Terrell
Krashen, S. & Terrell, T.
1983
.
The Natural Approach: Language Acquisition in the Classroom
Terrell develops 'The Natural Approach' (1977)
Krashen's Natural Order Hypothesis vs Grammar Syllabus
I am reading (now).
(Thornbury, 1999:15)
CLT = Communicative Language Teaching
Some grammatical structures tend to be acquired early while others late. The
natural order of acquisition cannot be influenced by direct teaching
of features that the learner is not yet ready to acquire.
The Natural Approach simulates the
experience of L1 acquisition - child
. The ‘
silent period
’ for example, during which time speaking is not important. Students speak when they are ‘ready’ – first
comprehension
then
speech production
.
= more or less understandable but at a higher level than the Ss can produce
=one step beyond his/her current stage of linguistic competence
= movies, videos, music, newspapers, articles, books, anecdotes etc.
(i = 5)
NOT = i + 20
i = 4
It requires
meaningful contexts
and natural interactions. Ss focus on
communicating effectively
= 'knowing a language'
=‘using language for real communication’.
Krashen: ‘
knowing about a language'
e.g. grammar rules; (noun/verb/adjective; present simple tense etc).
The role of conscious learning is somewhat
limited
in second language performance.
The role of the monitor should be - minor, used only to correct deviations from 'normal' speech and to give speech a more 'polished' appearance.
Ss have sufficient time
Ss know the grammatical rule
Ss focus on form or think about correctness
Ss use the 'monitor' all the time e.g.
introverts;

lack of self-confidence or poor self-esteem; perfectionists
Ss who have not learned the rules or who prefer not to use their conscious knowledge e.g.
extroverts; dominant personalities
over-users
under-users
optimal users
unconscious/implicit
conscious/explicit
Input may be filtered out because of
anxiety, poor self-esteem or low motivation.
A
stress-free environment
is thus vital to acquisition.
= humanistic approach
= non-interface position
2. practice turns explicit/taught language into implicit knowledge. Thus, explicit knowledge is
practised repeatedly
until it is
automatised
. (S uses language
spontaneously
/automatically).
(Bialystok 1981; Sharwood-Smith (1981)
The result=
seepage
occurs between conscious knowledge and unconscious knowledge (Ellis, 236).
Krashen's Monitor Model - An Overview
- developed within the
cognitivist view
of language learning
- proposes
L2=L1 hypothesis
- made SLA theory
accessible
to non-specialists and teachers
- the most comprehensive theory (at that point in time) -> explained all aspects of SLA
- immediately applicable = translated into a teaching methodology 'The Natural Approach'.
ACQUISITION
LEARNING
CONSCIOUS
UNCONSCIOUS
implicit knowledge
explicit knowledge
2 distinct, seperate ways of developing knowledge
=> 2 distinct, separate kinds of language knowledge
= unconscious development of language
= without formal instruction (not attending to grammar rules)
focus is on the content = getting a message across
L2 acquisition = L1 acquisition
= formal development of language through grammar instruction
Acquisition = LAD processing comprehensible input
Only acquired knowledge produces spontaneous output = genuine communication
'learnt' knowledge does not produce genuine communication output
=> not used in speaking
'learnt' knowledge = only one function (limited + limiting) = MONITOR
monitor = checks, edits, repairs the output of acquired lang
= more active = writing
Listening
comprehension -> production
beginner levels
lang acquisition is an implicit process in which linguistic rules (knowledge) are internalised through extensive exposure to authentic texts + comprehensible input that provides an appropriate level of challenge to the listener
conversational fluency
the monitor = a conscious process in which the learner applies grammatical rules to language output (oral or written). highly deliberate form of processing
When parents do correct children...
Children learn a language
without explicit grammar focus

(or analysis) + ['correction']
=> adult L2 Ss will too!
Assumes L2 = L1 Acquisition
recast/ reformulation
try backchaining!
incomplete ->
never added
'the'
+ other + spoon
start:
spoon
other + spoon
the + other + spoon
Implications for teaching
1. If L2 is 'acquired' unconsciously (L2= L1), just as we acquired our first lang (as children) ->
then make the L2 classroom mirror the L1 learning environment.
Ss will focus on
listening (and comprehension) -> not production.

= allow for a
'silent period'
2. No conscious attention to form or teaching rules
= zero grammar
Ss focus on = vocabulary
3. T's role: to maximise & enrich input
= meaningful
= must follow the 'i+1' formula
= made comprehensible
4. Allow 'silent time' for learners to internally process input and formulate rules.
Let the LAD take care of language acquisition
= do not rush output!
5. Follow the 'natural order' of acquisition => 'acquisition syllabus'
6. Lower Ss 'affective filter'
Critical Responses and Challenges to Krashen
plan? checks?
checks/corrects/repairs errors in speech
Contemporary Criticism of Krashen
L2 Learning = L1 Learning
the nature of child cognition is
not the same
as adult cognitive processing
children's capacity for unconscious learning is greater
our thinking becomes
logical, analytical, systematic
the onset of '
formal operations' stage
in adolescence leads to greaters levels of
meta-awareness & meta-cognition
=> there is a place for grammar focus
L1
L2
adult
child
= favours conscious learning
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
Critical Responses and Challenges to Krashen
The interface position vs Krashen's non-interface position
Critical Responses Continued
Krashen states that
acquired knowledge
and
learnt knowledge

are
separate; distinct; unrelated
.
-> Learnt (conscious) knowledge cannot be converted into acquired knowledge
= become automatic
Bialystok (1979; 1981)
-> it
IS possible
for consciously learnt knowledge to
become part
of unconscious language knowledge
AND be used in communication output
= there is a channel between unconscious <-> conscious knowledge
=> there is a place for conscious learning of language
Scrivener (2005)
Focus on meaning
Focus on form
Fidel Chart
Cuisenaire Rods
Total Physical Response
(De)Suggestopedia
Ss make slow progress on complex and more accurate language without focus on form =
fossilization
of errors.
Form-focused instruction
and
corrective feedback
assist Ss growth and continued development in L2.
NO corrective feedback from T
Krashen = NO benefit + just interferes with SLA
"Just Listen (and read)" (Krashen's Natural Approach)
Deep-end/strong version of 'Let's talk' communicative language teaching (CLT)
integrate focus on form within communicative and task-based programs.
SLA research does not support that language acquisition will '
take care of itself
' if Ss simply focus on meaning = comprehensible input.
Strongest approach:
Ts must provide guided, form-based instruction and correction in meaningful (and authentic) contexts.
Individual Learner Factors:
age
A Post-Method Era
Ecleticism
Coursebooks
'established teaching practice'
Flexible teachers = adapt
= Oxbridge monopoly
Jeremy Harmer
Grammar- Translation
= some attention to grammar is useful for adult Ss?
Audio-Lingualism
repetition = automatization (practice =useful)?
TL = only language of instruction?
emphasis on the heard+ spoken language = useful?
Humanistic (Suggestopedia; Silent Way; TPR)
= low-stress/ low-anxiety learning
= learner-centred; T's role is reduced
= increases STT (student talk time)
= self-discovery method (inductive approach)
allows a period of silent assimilation before production
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