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AP Psychology: Vision

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Arlene Mae Alegre

on 17 May 2013

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Transcript of AP Psychology: Vision

Transduction is the process by which our sensory systems encode stimulus energy as neural messages the brain can interpret

Ex: In vision, we convert light energy into these neural impulses.

The energies we experience as visible light are a thin slice from broad spectrum of electromagnetic radiation.

The hue and brightness we perceive in a light depend on the wavelength and intensity. The Stimulus Input: Light Energy Vision (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr
Short Wavelength=high frequency

Bluish colors, high-pitched sounds Long Wavelength=low frequency

Reddish colors, low-pitched sounds Great Amplitude

Bright colors, loud sounds Small Amplitude

Dull colors, soft sounds The Eye Visual Information Processing At the main entry, the Retina process visual information before routing it via the thalamus to the brains cortex

The neural layers passes on electrical impulses and also help to encode sensory information

Any given retina information will travel to the corresponding location in the occipital lobe (the visual cortex of the brain) •Pupil: adjustable opening I'm the center of the eye where light enters.

•Iris: controls the size of pupil opening, colored part of eye around the pupil.

•Lens: transparent structure behind pupil to help focus images on the retina

•Retina: inner surface of the eye

•Accommodation is the process where the eyes lens changes shape to focus objects on the retina The Eye (cont.) •In the inner surface of the eye, receptor cells convert light energy into neural impulses.

•These impulses travel along the optic nerve to the brain.

•The retina receives an upside down image and the brain constructs impulses to an upright image

•Rods and cones are the two types of receptor cells

•Rods are one of the two retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray. Twins is used for peripheral and twilight vision when cones don't respond.

•Cones, the second type of receptor cells are concentrated at the center of the retina. They detect fine detail and give rise to color sensation. Feature Detection The visual cortex has ‘feature detector’ neurons that receive this information and respond to a scene’s specific features
EX. Edges, lines, angles, and movements.

Basically like different lobes can help you process certain types of information.

EX. A certain lobe of your brain can help you to detect faces, it caters to a certain feature

Even if certain images keep appearing in your retina, your focus on perception will shift every couple of seconds.

EX. Necker cube, every few seconds you will look at a different side, seeing a new perspective

Changing patterns and light intensity can be described mathematically, so sometimes your brain sees things and focuses on what can be different ‘codes’ of light. Color Vision •Vision is color deficient and that person is usually male because the defect is genetically sex-linked

•Young-Helmholtz trichromatic theory: simply states that the retina has three types of color receptors, each especially sensitive to one of three colors.

•Mixing paint is subtractive color mixing because it subtracts wavelengths from the reflected light

•Monochromatic (one color); Dichromatic (two colors); Trichromatic Color Vision (cont.) •Opponent-process theory, after leaving the receptor cells, visual information is analyzed in terms of the opponent colors red and green, blue and yellow, and also black and white

•Some neurons are turned “on” by red but turned “off” by green… vice versa

•Retina’s red, green, and blue cones respond in varying degrees to different color stimuli

•Color will remain constant as the lighting and wavelengths shift, color constancy Sources "KidsHealth." Vision Facts and Myths. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2012. <http://kidshealth.org/parent/general/eyes/vision_facts_myths.html>.

"Interesting Facts about Vision." Vision Help. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2012. <http://www.visionhelp.com/vh_about_02.html>.

"Vision 101: Facts About the Human Eye." About.com Vision. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2012. <http://vision.about.com/od/commonvisionproblems/p/Eye_Care.htm>.
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