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Transcript of Self-Efficacy
2. Where do self-efficacy beliefs come from?
3. Why is self-efficacy important?
Self-efficacy and Positive Psychology
Self-efficacy and optimism
Motivation is provided by self-efficacious beliefs.
Beliefs on their actions producing outcomes can produce these outcomes.
How people behave in their accomplishments can be predicted by the beliefs they hold of their capabilities.
Having an optimistic viewpoint is influenced by our self-efficacious beliefs.
Understand the roles of self-efficacy on optimism and how it affects positive psychology.
Self-efficacy influences our future.
(Hefferon & Boniwell, 2011).
"Efficacy beliefs continue to develop through the life span as we continue to integrate information from five primary sources: performance experiences, vicarious experiences, imagined experiences, verbal persuasion, and physiological/emotional states" (Maddux & Kleiman, 2002).
Our own attempts to control our environments are the most powerful source of self-efficacy information. Successful attempts at control that you attribute to your own efforts will strengthen self-efficacy for that behavior or domain.
Let's Try it For Ourselves!
Where Do Self-Efficacy Beliefs Come From?
Self-efficacy is best understood in the context of social cognitive theory.
"Four basic premises or cognitive theory:
We have powerful cognitive capabilities that enable the creation of internal models of experience, the development of innovative courses of actions, the hypothetical testing of such courses of action through the prediction of outcomes, and the communication of complex ideas and experiences to others.
Environmental events, inner personal factors, and behaviors are interactive influences.
"Self" and "Personality" are socially embedded.
We are capable of self-regulation. We choose goals and regulate our behavior in the pursuit of these goals" (Maddux & Kleiman, 2002).
"I think I can"
What is self-efficacy?
"People's beliefs in their capabilities to produce desired effects by their own actions" (Maddux & Kleiman, 2002).
NOT perceived skill; what you BELIEVE you can do.
Your beliefs about what you are capable of doing.
Plays a crucial role in psychological adjustment, psychological problems, physical health, as well as professionally guided and self-guided behavioral change strategies (Maddux & Kleiman, 2002).
The early development of self-efficacy beliefs is influenced by two factors:
1. By the development of the capacity for symbolic thought, in particular the capacity for understanding cause-and-effect and by the development for self-observation and self-reflection.
2. By the responsiveness of environments to the infant's or child's attempts at manipulation and control.
By our observations of the behavior of others and the consequences of those behaviors.
Imagining ourselves or others behaving effectively
or ineffectively in hypothetical situations.
What others say to us about what they believe we can or cannot do.
Physiological and Emotional States
When we learn to associate poor performance or perceived failure with aversive physiological arousal, and success with pleasant feeling states.
Self-Efficacy and Well-Being
Low self-efficacy expectancies are an important feature of depression in adolescents and adults.
Dysfunctional anxiety and avoidant behavior are the direct result of low-self-efficacy beliefs for managing threatening situations.
Also play a powerful role in substance abuse problems, eating disorders, post-traumatic stress, and suicidal behaviors.
Self-efficacy beliefs influence the adoption of healthy behaviors,the cessation of unhealthy behaviors, and the maintenance of behavioral changes in the face of challenges and difficulty.
Self-efficacy beliefs affect the body's physiological responses to stress, including the immune system.
Self-Efficacy and Physical Health
Self-Efficacy and Self-Regulation
Influence the goals we set.
Influence our choices of goal-directed activities, expenditure of effort, persistence in the face of challenge and obstacles, and reactions to perceived discrepancies between goals and current performance.
Influence the efficiency and effectiveness of problem solving and decision making.
Self-Efficacy and Psychotherapy
the importance of arranging experiences designed to increase the person's sense of efficacy for specific behaviors in specific problematic and challenging situations.
suggests that formal interventions should not simply resolve specific problems, but should provide people with the skills and sense of efficacy for solving problems themselves (Maddux & Kleiman, 2002).
"In self-efficacy theory, collective efficacy is recognized that no man or woman is an island and that there are limits to what individuals can accomplish alone" (Maddux & Kleiman, 2002).
A group's shared belief in its conjoint capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required for producing given levels of attainments.
the extent to which we believe that we can work together effectively to accomplish our shared goals.
Hefferon, K., & Boniwell, I. (2011). Positive psychology: theory, research and applications. S.l.: Mc Graw-Hill - Open University Press.
Maddux, J. E., & Kleiman, E. M. (2002). Self-Efficacy: The Power of Believing You Can. The Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology, 3rd edition. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199396511.001.0001
By: Kendra Trimper
1. It is clear that self-efficacy beliefs are important in the initiation of behavior changes, but additional research is needed on the role that self-efficacy beliefs play in the ongoing process of self-regulation. What is the complex interaction among self-efficacy beliefs and the other major components of self-regulation, such as goals, intentions, plans, and so on ?
2. Is there any utility in refining scales of "genera self-efficacy" and continuing to use them in research?
3. What role do beliefs about collective efficacy play in organizational change and societal-level changes and movements (e.g. political movements)?
4. How can we build on previous research to create interventions to increase well-being and decrease suffering and psychopathology (e.g. depression)?
(Maddux & Kleiman, 2002).