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Chapter 7, section 2

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by

Caitlin Springer

on 19 November 2012

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Transcript of Chapter 7, section 2

Sanitation Problems of Urbanization Transportation Dumbbell tenements Living conditions Social Gospel reforms -Each room had one window.
-The indented central area of the building was to allow air shafts.
-These building met the minimum standards for plumbing and ventilation. -Two or three families living in one family living space.
-Garbage was sometimes stuffed into air shafts
-Windows were nailed shut What is urbanization?

What caused urbanization?
opportunity
cheap and convenient
steady jobs in mills and factories

Immigrants
ethnic neighborhoods
americanization movement

Why leave the country for the city?
technological innovations causing loss of jobs

Urban cultural opportunities Water In this photo is a dead horse in the street and children sitting by an open gutter Fire Crime As the population in cities increased, the crime did, too.
Pickpocketers and thieves were abundant in urban crowds.
Crime-ridden areas were known as Murderers' alley or Robbers' Roosts.
New York organized the first full-time, paid police force in 1844 but, it still wasn't enough to adequately protect local residents. In this photo, this is what the docking ports what would look like. This photo is what
average water
looked like in
most urban
environments. Small cities:
-Main ways of getting around was by foot and horse-drawn vehicles
-Lived in the inner city, near your work place Urbanization
-Cities expanded
-People moved to the suburbs
-Old transportation methods became a problem for people who had to travel to get to their jobs Innovations
-Street cars started in 1873
-Electric street cars started in 1888
-The subway system was created in 1897 Urbanization caused lack of water. This lack of water lead to the spread of fires.
In the late 19th century, major fires occurred in almost every large city in America.
In addition to lack of water, most buildings were made of wood which was just waiting to be burnt.
Candles and kerosene use lead to a sizable amount of fires.
Often, in the aftermath of earthquakes, fires would occur. Bibliography Focused on the main problems of urbanization Reformers rejected the idea that the poor were responsible for their poverty Gladden called for "taking the Gospel to the streets" "Research Resources." UIC Study of the United States Institute. University of Illinois, 2009. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. <http://www.uic.edu/depts/oee/susi/research_reform.html>.
Hughes, Chris. "Birds Eye View Of New York City." RSS. N.p., 2012. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. <http://strangefunnyworld.com/birds-eye-view-of-new-york-city/>.
Dizbuster3319. Flickr. Yahoo!, 2012. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. <http://www.flickr.com/photos/dizbuster319/3204204161/sizes/l/in/photostream/>.
"Welcome to the San Diego Electric Railway Association!" Welcome to the San Diego Electric Railway Association. San Diego Electric Railway Association, Inc., 29 Sept. 2012. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. <http://www.sdera.org/>.
"New York." New York. N.p., 30 July 2012. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. <http://sharonaakilova.blogspot.com/>.
Tarr, Joel A. "COALITION TO BAN HORSE-DRAWN CARRIAGES." URBAN POLLUTION-Many Long Years Ago. American Heritage Magazine, Oct. 1971. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. <http://www.banhdc.org/archives/ch-hist-19711000-02.html>.
Bodnar, John. The Transplanted: A History of Immigrants in Urban America. Bloomington: University of Indiana Press, 1985; Daniels, Roger. Coming to America: A History of Immigration and Ethnicity in American Life. 2nd ed. New York: Perennial, 2002.
Alexander, June Granatir. "Housing in Immigrant Neighborhoods: Modern World." Daily Life through History. ABC-CLIO,2012. Web. 18 Nov. 2012.
Philpott, Thomas Lee. The Slum and the Ghetto: Neighborhood Deterioration and Middle-class Reform, Chicago, 1880-1930. New York: Oxford UP, 1978. Print. Clean water was scarce in Urban Environments, because of the city's sanitation.
City's tried to to find cure for disease to keep local water clean.
Sanitizing the city, so the liter of the city would not travel to a close water source.
There were no laws against liter, so liter in the city would travel to close by water sources. City sanitation was one of the worst problems with Urbanization.

There were no laws against littering.

Lack of clean water kept people from bathing and caused disease and sickness.

When they did bathe it was dirtier water then drinking water. In 1908, Federal Council of Churches of America issued a statement called the Social Creed of the Churches.
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