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Technology and Bioengineering of Milk Production

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on 9 January 2014

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Transcript of Technology and Bioengineering of Milk Production

Technology and Bioengineering of Milk Production
What we will learn in this presentation?
1_What is the milk?
2_What is the milk composition?
3_What is the milk production?
4_What are examples of milk production?
5_What are dairy products?
6_What is the importance of milk in the nutrition?
7_What are the steps of the process of milk?
8_What is the lactose intolerance?
9_What is the milk production in Turkey?
1_What is the milk?
Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the primary source of nutrition for young mammals before they are able to digest other types of food. also contains many nutrients.
2_What is the milk composition?

Milk composition;
Water ( %87.1)
Carbohydrate (%4,6)(lactose)
Fat (%3.9)
Protein ( %3.0)(casein)
Vitamins (A,D,E,K vitamins)
Minerals (%0.9)
Minor Biological Proteins & Enzymes



* Minor Biological Proteins & Enzymes

Prof.Grazyna Niedzialek
Water does not provide a nutritional benefit in the same manner as proteins or vitamins, for example. However, water is extremely important in human metabolism. Water maintains blood volume, transports nutrients like glucose and oxygen to the tissues and organs, and transports waste products away from tissues and organs for elimination by the body.
Carbohydrates are the primary source of energy for activity. Glucose is the only form of energy that can be used by the brain. Excess glucose is stored in the form of glycogen in the muscles and liver for later use. Carbohydrates are important in hormonal regulation in the body.
Fats are a structural component of cell membranes and hormones. Fats are a concentrated energy source and are the main energy source used by the body during low intensity activities and prolonged exercise over 90 minutes. Fat is the main storage form of excess energy in the body.
Proteins are the fundamental building blocks of muscles, skin, hair, and cellular components. Proteins are needed to help muscles contract and relax, and help repair damaged tissues. They play a critical role in many body functions as enzymes, hormones, and antibodies. Proteins may also be used as an energy source by the body.
Milk protein;
consists of approximately 82% casein and 18% whey (serum) proteins. Both casein and whey proteins are present in milk, yogurt, and ice cream
Vitamins have many roles in the body including metabolism co-factors, oxygen transport and antioxidants. They help the body use carbohydrates, protein, and fat.
Minerals have many roles in the body including enzyme functions, bone formation, water balance maintenance, and oxygen transport. They help the body use carbohydrates, protein, and fat

Other minor proteins and enzymes in milk that are of nutritional interest include lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase. There are many other enzymes in milk but these do not have a role in human nutrition.
4_What are examples of milk production?
*Heat treatment

*Ultra-heat tratment

Homogenisation forcing milk through a small passage at high velocity. This breaks down the fat globules in milk into much smaller ones and creates a stabile fat emulsion.
Heat treatment 95% of UK milk is heat treated.

1_ Pasteurisation
*Most popular method of heat treatment.
* Kills harmful bacteria without significantly affecting the nutritional value or taste of the milk.
*Heating milk to a temp of no less than 71ºC for a minimum of 15 seconds.

*This process is known as High Temperature Short Time (HTST). Following heating, the milk is cooled rapidly to below 6ºC using chilled water on the opposite side of the plate.
*This process also extends the keeping quality of the milk
*Sterilization is to destroy, by a high heat, all of the microbial flora of milk. The milk then presents a full guarantee of hygiene and conservation.
*The milk is pre-sterilized at 130 ° C for 3 or 4 seconds, and then bottled "hot" at 80 ° C, and sterilized in its packaging at 115 ° C for 15 to 20 minutes.
Another method is to sterilize milk at 115 ° C for 20 seconds, then store and aseptic packaging

*UHT Ultra heat treated milk is a form of milk that has been heated to a temp of at least 135ºC in order to kill off any harmful micro-organisms
*The milk is then packaged into sterile containers.
*UHT milks have a longer shelf life as a result of the higher temperatures to which they are heated and the packaging used to store them.
*Ultra-heat tratment
On the nutrient, pasteurized milk is richer compared to the sterilized milk.
5_What are milk products?
*evaporated and condensed milk
*skimmed milk
* yogurt
* ice cream
*Dried milk
1_Dried milk

Powdered milk or dried milk is a manufactured dairy product made by evaporating milk to dryness.
One purpose of drying milk is to preserve it; milk powder has a far longer shelf life than liquid milk, due to its low moisture content. Another purpose is to reduce its bulk for economy of transportation.
2_Evaporated and condensed milk
Evaporated milk, also known as dehydrated milk, is a shelf-stable canned milk product with about 60% of the water removed from fresh milk. It differs from sweetened condensed milk, which contains added sugar. Sweetened condensed milk requires less processing since the added sugar inhibit bacterial growth.
3_Skimmed milk
Skimmed milk contains less fat than whole milk, and as such many nutritionists and doctors recommend it for people who are trying to lose weight or maintain a healthy weight.
Whole milk is about 4% fat
Semi skimmed milk is 1.7% fat
Skimmed milk is between 0.1-0.3% fat
Cheese is a food derived from milk that is produced in a wide range of flavors, textures, and forms by coagulation of the milk protein casein.
* It comprises proteins and fat from milk, usually the milk of cows, buffalo, goats, or sheep.
Production; During production, the milk is usually acidified, and adding the enzyme rennet causes coagulation. The solids are separated and pressed into final form.
Butter is a dairy product made by churning fresh or fermented cream or milk. Butter consists of butterfat, milk proteins and water.

Yogurt is a fermented milk product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. The bacteria used to make yogurt are known as "yogurt cultures". Fermentation of lactose by these bacteria produces lactic acid, which acts on milk protein to give yogurt its texture and its characteristic tang.
Ice cream is a frozen dessert usually made from dairy products, such as milk and cream and often combined with fruits or other ingredients and flavours. Most varieties contain sugar, although some are made with other sweeteners.
6_What is the importance of milk in the nutrition?
* Healthy Bones and Teeth
Milk is a great source of calcium, which is essential for healthy bones.
Milk contains protein, which helps to rebuild muscles
*Less Stress
Milk is a great way to de-stress at the end of the day. A glass of warm milk will help to relax tense muscles and soothe frayed nerves.

Milk has properties that lower high blood pressure and risk of strokes.
Vitamins A and B in milk can help build good eyesight.
Milk has also been show to help lower risk of certain

* Healthy Body
* Glowing Skin
Milk has several nutrients which help skin look its best. It has lactic acid which can act as an exfoliant and enzymes to help smooth skin. It also has amino acids that help keep skin moisturized.
What are the steps of the process of milk?
Milked two or three times a day, using electric milking machines which have special suction cups that are attached to the cows’ teats.
2_Farm storage
After the cows have been milked, the fresh milk is pumped to the farm’s storage vats where it is filtered, cooled and stored at or below 4˚C.

6. Homogenisation
All milk is homogenised, to prevent the cream separating and settling on top. During the homogenisation process, the milk is forced through tiny holes at high pressure which breaks up the fat globules (cream) into tiny particles. This results in the cream spreading throughout the milk in a permanent suspension
7. Packaging
Milk is then sent through a processing line to be packaged in cartons or bottles.
8. Distribution
Every day, milk is distributed from the factory to various milk depots in refrigerated trucks
8_What is the lactose intolerance?

Our body produces an enzyme lactase to digest lactose. Some people don’t produce enough lactase and therefore cant digest milk and dairy products (lactose intolerant)
Milk production statistics were calculated evaluating the number of milked animals and the milk yield coefficients gathered from 2001 Agricultural Census by Turkish Statistical Institution, until 2010. Data collection activities have been started from integrated milk establishments that use raw milk as input under the subgroup of NACE Rev.2, 10.51 in industry, within the aim of producing comparable statistics with shorter periods and determining the amount of milk collected and sold, starting from January 2010.
*Milk collected from farm was 631 105 tons
Collected milk from farm decreased by 0,5 % in February while compared to the previous month
*Drinking milk was 110 626 tons
Drinking milk production was decreased by 7,7 % in February while compared to the previous month.
*Cheese production was 44 996 tons
Cheese production increased by 3,1 % in February while compared to the previous month.

Yoghurt production decreased by 1,4 % in February while compared to the previous month.
*Yoghurt production was 78 911 tons

3_Leaving the Farm
Large milk tankers are used to transport the milk from the dairy farm to the factory.
4_At the Factory
The milk is then pumped into large insulated vats at the factory. Samples of the milk are taken at various stages during processing to check the temperature and quality.
5. Pasteurisation

High Temperature Short Time method, the milk is heated to not less than 72˚C for no less than 15 seconds. This kills any potentially harmful bacteria and extends the shelf life of the milk. The milk is then rapidly cooled to 4˚C.
9_What is the milk production in Turkey?
Name ;Büşra
Surname; ÖZTÜRK
University of Natural Sciences and Humanities

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