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Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures

Chapter 4 Science Vocab
by

Kimberly Cang

on 13 August 2014

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Transcript of Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures

CHAPTER 4
It all begins with a
pure substance
.
A
pure substance
is substance with one type of particle. It is a group of similar atoms to make up one single substance. An example of a pure substance is an element.
Element
An
element
is a pure substance. It can’t be broken down into a simpler substance through physical or chemical change. An element is made up of all the same atoms.
A
metal
is shiny in color and is a good conductor for heat and electricity. Metals are also malleable and ductile meaning they can be pressed into thin sheets or into wire.
Metalloids
are in the middle compared to metals and non-metals, so it has components from both of those sections. A metalloid is a semi-conductor meaning that only some metalloids are conductors. Metalloids can vary from shiny to dull in color, and can or cannot be malleable and ductile depending on the substance.
Non-metals
are dull in color and are poor conductors. They are usually brittle, so they cannot be made into thin sheets or wire. Non-metals aren't as commonly seen compared to metals and metalloids.
A
compound
is also a pure substance, but it is made up of a number elements that had undergone a chemical change.
Compound
A
compound
is a pure substance made of elements that were chemically combined through a chemical change. Molecules of compounds are made when atoms of at least 2 elements join together. They have a set amount of components in a definite ratio. It will no longer be the same substance if that ratio is changed.
Examples of compounds:
Mixture
A
mixture
is a combination of two or more substances that are physically combined. They can be made of elements, compounds, or both.
A
mixture
is a combination of two or more substances that are physically combined. They can be made of elements, compounds, or both. It can also have any ratio of components without altering the substances. Since the substances remain the same, the physical changes can just as easily be undone as it was made.
The result of a mixture could be a solution.
Solutions
are a
homogeneous
mixture that appears as one substance with the same appearance and properties throughout the mixture. A solution’s particles are distributed evenly among each other.
(A
homogeneous
mixture is when all components of the mixture are the same.
Heterogeneous
is when a mixture is composed of different substances.)
The process in which those particles are distributing within the solution is called dissolving. Within the solution, there is a solute and a solvent. The
solute
is what is
being dissolved
and the
solvent
is what the solute is
dissolving in
. The solute must be
soluble
in order to dissolve in the solvent.
For example:
(soluble: able to dissolve)
Salt Water
Salt water is a solution where the salt is soluble. This means that since the salt can dissolve, that is the solute. The salt is dissolving in a liquid, making the water a solvent.
The Periodic Table
The Periodic Table is a chart of all the elements that are currently discovered. Each element can be classified as a metal, non-metal, or metalloid based on its properties.
Solutions can also be found in other forms such as sodas (carbon dioxide in water) and brass (zinc in copper).
Water's chemical formula is H2O. It has exactly 2 hydrogen and 1 oxygen atom per molecule, making it a compound.
House hold ingredients such as baking soda (NaHCO3) and vinegar (C2H4O2) are also compounds.
In a mixture, there are also
suspensions
. In a suspension, the particles are large enough to see and go through a filter. They also have just enough weight to disperse through the solvent then settle. The particles can block light as well and must be re-shaken or stirred in order to stay mixed.
For example, a snow globe must be shaken in order for the snow to spread before it settles back to the bottom.

Colloids
are another form of mixtures.
They are between solutions and suspensions and have particles too small to settle out. Colloids cannot be filtered but are large enough to scatter light.
Examples of colloids are milk, whipped cream, and gelatin.
The End

Salt. Photography. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 26 Sep 2013. http://quest.eb.com/images/132_1252291

Glass Of Water. Photography. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 26 Sep 2013. http://quest.eb.com/images/156_2395901

Periodic Table. Photography. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 26 Sep 2013. http://quest.eb.com/images/139_2008754

Fizzy Soft Drinks. Photography. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 26 Sep 2013. http://quest.eb.com/images/132_1253843

Shiny French Horn On A White Background. Photo. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 26 Sep 2013. http://quest.eb.com/images/167_3988026

Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest, "Shiny French Horn On A White Background", accessed 26 Sep 2013, http://quest.eb.com/images/167_3988026

Water. Photography. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 26 Sep 2013. http://quest.eb.com/images/300_3426650

Bottles Of Vinegar - Non Exclusive. Photography. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 26 Sep 2013. http://quest.eb.com/images/156_2397964

BOX OF BAKING SODA. Photography. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 26 Sep 2013. http://quest.eb.com/images/300_1829275
by Kimberly Cang
CITATIONS
The measure of the amount of solute dissolved in solvent is
concentration
. Concentration is measured in grams of solute per milliliter of solvent (g/mL).
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