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EDUC 220 CH 5 Historical Development of American Education
Transcript of EDUC 220 CH 5 Historical Development of American Education
Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries
European colonists came from many
ethnic and language backgrounds.
Puritan schools were grounded in religious purposes,
as well as economic ones.
Puritans believed that educated persons who knew God’s commandments could resist the devil’s temptations.
Puritans believed in child depravity. Children were thought to be inclined towards evil.
New England Colonies
The Old Deluder Satan Law was established in 1647.
It required every town of fifty or more families to appoint a reading and writing teacher. Towns of one hundred or more families were to employ a Latin teacher to prepare young men for Harvard.
Curriculum materials included the Bible, hornbook, and New England Primer.
The Middle Atlantic colonies took a different approach
to education and schools than the New England colonies.
The Dutch, Swedes and Germans settled in the Middle Atlantic colonies.
Private religious institutions, such as Dutch parochial and Quaker schools, were established.
The Southern colonies also took a different approach to educating children during the colonial era.
Except in select cities, the southern population was dispersed. Centrally located schools were difficult to establish.
Economically advantaged children of wealthy white plantation owners studied with private tutors.
Slavery was practiced. Enslaved Africans, seized by force and transported in slave ships to North America against their will, were denied an education.
Early national period
The American Revolution took place in 1776 and
ended British rule in the thirteen colonies.
The leaders of the new republic wanted to create schools that emphasized American identity.
Under the articles of Confederation, federal legislation was enacted. A section of every thirty-six square mile township was reserved for education.
The U.S. Constitution was ratified and the Tenth Amendment was introduced. The Tenth Amendment left responsibility for education to the states.
Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Rush, and Noah Webster developed proposals for schools.
Common School Movement
The common school movement gained momentum between 1820 and 1850 and created publicly controlled and funded elementary education.
Horace Mann served as secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education and oversaw the development of the common school movement.
These schools were to be common to children of all social and economic classes. African children largely were excluded from common schools until after the Civil War.
Massachusetts required every town to elect a school committee that was responsible for the school in its jurisdiction. Local districts developed one room schools.
The common school offered a basic curriculum of reading, writing, spelling, and arithmetic.
Normal schools were established to provide standardized teacher training for the growing common school movement.
Normal schools provided a career path for women.
Catharine Beecher (1800-1878) connected the common school movement to women’s education. Beecher created the Hartford Female Seminary.
American Secondary Schools
Academies were the major secondary schools in the first half of the nineteenth century. The were single-sex and coeducational. Academies prepared males for college.
High schools developed such as the Boston English Classical School. In the 1870s, school districts levied taxes to support public high schools.
In 1892, the Committee of Ten defined the mission and purposes of high schools.
In 1918, the Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education redefined high school as a comprehensive institution.
American Colleges and Universities
Protestant denominations established church affiliated institutions starting in the seventeenth century.
The Morrill Act of 1862 generated income from land grants to support state colleges for agricultural and mechanical education.
Immigration and cultural diversity
In 1865, Congress established the Freedmen’s Bureau to provide economic and educational assistance to African Americans in the South during Reconstruction.
Booker T. Washington (1856-1915) established the Tuskegee Institute. The curriculum at Tuskegee emphasized academic, agricultural, and occupational skills.
W.E.B. Dubois (1868-1963) challenged Booker T. Washington’s work. He attacked systems of racial segregation. He organized the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
Education among Native Americans historically was informal. Children learned skills, social roles, and cultural patterns.
European colonists sought to “civilize” Native Americans. In the Southwest, missions were established.
From the 1890 to the 1930s, the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) established and orchestrated boarding schools for assimilationist educational policy.
The Treaty of Guadeloupe in 1848, at the end of the Mexican War, resulted in public schools in which Mexican American children were taught in English, rather than Spanish. This was an Americanization assimilationist policy.
Bilingual and multicultural education replaced Americanization. The Bilingual Education Act was passed in 1968. In 1974, Lau v. Nichols further supported bilingual and multicultural education programs.
Chinese immigration began in California during the gold rush from 1848-1849. Japanese immigration began in 1885.
Laws were passed that prohibited Chinese and Japanese immigration. In 1882 the Chinese Exclusion Act was passed. Asian immigrants faced discrimination.
World War II brought prejudice against Japanese Americans. Relocation camps and camp schools were established.
After the 1960s, immigration increased among Asian groups. Asian Americans assimilated into the public schools.
Early Arab immigrants came to the United States from the
Turkish Ottoman empire from 1875-1915.
Immigration continued following World War II.
Like other immigrant groups, Arab Americans assimilated by attending public schools. Many Arab immigrants maintained their culture, language, and customs.