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Fractional Distillation

Oil Industry Presenation
by

Nicole McGuiggan

on 12 February 2013

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Transcript of Fractional Distillation

fractional distillation the problem the solution Benefits and Limitations environmental impact Bibliography GCSE. "Fractional Distillation." BBC News. BBC, 2013. Web. 09 Feb. 2013.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/ocr_gateway_pre_2011/carbon_chem/4_crude_oil3.shtml

"cracking." BBC News. BBC, 2013. Web. 09 Feb. 2013.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/ocr_gateway_pre_2011/carbon_chem/4_crude_oil5.shtml

Freudenrich., Craig, Ph.D. "How Oil Refining Works." HowStuffWorks. N.p., 2013. Web. 09 Feb. 2013.
http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/energy/oil-refining2.htm

Wikiedia. "Fractional Distillation." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 02 Mar. 2013. Web. 09 Feb. 2013.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fractional_distillation

ERI. "Impacts, Risks and Regulations." Petroleum Refining:Â Impacts, Risks, and Regulations. N.p., 8 Nov. 2004. Web. 11 Feb. 2013.
http://ecm.ncms.org/ERI/new/IRRpetref.htm

BP. "Oil Refining and Refineries." Bp. N.p., 2013. Web. 11 Feb. 2013.
http://www.bp.com/sectiongenericarticle.do?categoryId=9021510&contentId=7040010

Kinyanjui, Loise. "The Advantages & Disadvantages of Fractional Distillation." EHow. Demand Media, 30 May 2011. Web. 09 Feb. 2013.
http://www.ehow.com/info_8513450_advantages-disadvantages-fractional-distillation.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oil_refinery very efficient
very important in oil refineries to make sure there are "maximum yields" with the smallest operational costs. easy to use
modern fractional distillation columns have microprocessors that control the distillation process almost completely therefore minimizing time needed to operate equipment
heating, collection of distillate and the shutting down of the distillate is all automatic the cost
in comparison to other types of distillation it is quite expensive
specifically the cost of first buying the fractionating column is quite steep
replacement of components of the fractionating column in oil refineries is quite common because of the high temperatures and the replacement can also be expensive it comes with many operational risks
because high temperatures of pressures are involved there is the possibility of a fatal explosion if precautions aren't taken. crude oil after crude oil is extracted we are left with hundreds of different types of hydrocarbons all mixed together where it is near useless - we can't use crude oil for cars, planes etc...

We need to be able to process crude oil effectively and efficiently in order it to be useful. We need to be able to separate the hydrocarbons for different specific uses. fractional distillation fractional distillation can separate substances in crude oil with different boiling points
crude oil is evaporated and then its vapors condense at different temperatures in the fractional column each fraction contains hydrocarbon molecules with a similar amount of carbon atoms
main fractions include refinery gases, petrol, naphtha, kerosene, fuel oil and a residue that contains bitumen
useful for separating many substances with small differences in boiling points
"most important step in the refining process" it also affects the environment in a bad way because water is sometimes used to cool down the vapors a lot of energy is needed for the fractional distillation column to run and refine the crude oil --> pollution because it deals with high pressure and heat explosions are very possible and if there were to be one this would greatly affect the surrounding environment
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