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History of the Atom
Transcript of History of the Atom
James Chadwick (1931) England Dalton formed the Atomic theory, which is that all matter is composed of tiny particles called Atoms that are all alike and have the same weight.
Chadwick discovered that inside an Atoms nucleus, there's a particle. He named it a Neutron because it has no electric charge. Here is what the Atom structure looks like: Democritus-Greece Democritus stated that all matter is made up of Atoms. He also stated that Atoms are invisible and so small that they cant be divided, and that they entirely fill up the space that their in. One of the cool things that Democritus did was cutting a square in half, and then in half again, and again, and again, until it ends up being really small. It would be called an Atomos, which means indivisible. Here is a real life picture of an Atom under a microscope: J.J. Thompson (1898) England Thompson discovered the electron. He used something called a Cathode ray tube to find his answer. The Cathode ray tube is made up of gas, and it works by running electricity and then you get a ray through the tube. Most of our modern day TV's are ray tubes. What Thompson did was put a magnet over the tube. By doing that, the ray of electrons bent down. What he found was that the electrons appeared when you started pushing the like charge. Ernest Rutherford (1909) England Rutherford took a bit of gold and shot alfa particles
at it. Alfa particles are two protons and two neutrons. The particles would travel through the gold. He had a sensor on the bottom where the particles came out through. The sensor was there to find out where the alfa particles go. When the particles went through, some would turn to the side and only the odd one would shoot back up. By shooting back up, Rutherford was surprised. To be able to shoot back, the particles had to be positive. By seeing all this, he discovered the Nucleus. Neils Bohr (1913) Denmark
Erwin Schroedinger (1926) Austria
Werner Heisenburg (1925) Germany Neils Bohr worked in Rutherford's lab. He discovered that Rutherford was wrong about the Atoms figure. To have the positive charge on the inside and electrons going around on the outside wouldn't work because the positively charged center would attract the electrons. So Bohr found out a new model of the Atom. Because there is a positively charged center, the electrons on the outside had to be moving around in a certain order of orbit.
Erwin Schroedinger said that electrons aren't particles but waves. Bohr on the other hand says they are particles.
Werner Heisenburg found out that both Bohr and Schroedinger were right. Electrons are particles but described as Schroedinger's Idea of a wave. This is a photo of the Quantum
theory. Here is a video to sum things up: Thanks for watching!