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History of Graphic Design
Transcript of History of Graphic Design
Active Socialist and social reformer
Successful poet and novelist
In his last years, the founder of the Kelmscott Press Floral
Contrast to Industrial Revolution Origins Literacy was power during this time period.
Very expensive to own books History of Graphic Design Timeline (1300-1600) Zeitgeist Main Styles Rubrication
Modern Faces Key Figures Gutenberg Claude Garamond Nicolas
Jenson German blacksmith, goldsmith, and printer who introduced mechanical movable type and started the printing revolution. (1395-1468) (1420-1480) French engraver and type designer accredited with being the creator of the first model roman face Art Nouveau The Arts & Crafts Movement
Mechanization of Type Setting
Ornate, decorative design (1890 - 1905) Zeitgeist Main Styles Key Figures William Morris William
Cappiello (1834 – 1896) (1868 – 1962) "Dean of American Designers"
American Nouveau artist & illustrator.
Highest paid artist in the early 20th century. Italian Poster Art Designer
Lived in Paris
"the Father of Modern Advertising" (because of his poster design innovation)
No formal art training (1875 - 1942) German graphic designer, type designer, professor, interior designer and artist
Influential in creation of Plakatstil (Poster Design) and Sachplakat (Object Poster)
Sachplakat restricted the image to simplify the object being advertised Began out of negative reaction to WWI
For many it was a protest against bourgeois nationalists Anti-war
Against many of the norms and values at the time ( 1916- 1930) Zeitgeist Main Styles Key Figures Lucian Bernhard Ludwig Hohlwein (1883 - 1972) (1874 - 1949) Guillaume Apollinaire (1880 - 1918) 1929 - The Great Depression, Museum of Modern Art opens
1930's - Age of the Magazine - Fortune, Vanity Fair, Vogue, Harper's Bazaar
1939 - World War II (1920 - 1944) Key Dates Main Styles Key Figures Sleek and stylish
Glamorous and eye-catching visuals
Transformed Futurism, Purism and Vorticism for industrial and decorative arts Cassandre
Norman Rockwell 1933 - Jan Tschichold emigrates to Swizterland
1935 - Penguin publishers established
1956 - Neue Haas Grotesk AKA Helvetica
1957 - Univers
1958 - Neue Grafik founded Key Dates Main Styles Key Figures Simple gridded compositions
More attention given to type, Akzidenz Grotesk popularized
Use of primary colors and black/white in works
Golden Age of Logos Josef Muller-Brockman
Paul Rand 1950's - Push Pin Studios established
1966 - Milton Glaser's Bob Dylan poster, Drugs made illegal
1967 - Rolling Stone published
1969 - Woodstock
1983 - Emigre magazine published (1955 - 1990) Key Dates Main Styles Key Figures Psychedelic colors, illegible type, organic forms
Conceptual and illustrative
Fun use of illustrations and type Wes Wilson
Rudy Van Der Lans/Zuzana Licko
Barbara Kruger 1981 - MTV founded
1990's - "Graffiti Revival"
1993 - Raygun and Wired magazines published
2001 - Sagmeister publishes "Sagmeister: Made You Look" (1920 - 1944) Key Dates Main Styles Key Figures Historicism and Appropriation
Wide range of styles and saturated colors
New technology paving the future for design
New typefaces to suit new technologies David Carson
David Lance Goines
Kyle Cooper French poet and artist
Credited with coining the word surrealism.
Known primarily for his Caligrams, or poems in which the typeface is arranged in a way taht creates a visual image Not Ludgwig, but his work Sudana Schokolade, 1926 German poster artist
Originially trained as an architect until 1906 he switched to poster design.
Considered one of the most prolific German posterists of the 20th century (1920 - 1939) Zeitgeist Main Styles Key Figures Georges Braque Major 20th-century French painter and sculptor who developed cubism along with Pablo Picasso
Was intensely interested in the effects of light and perspective and the means that painters use to represnt these effects (1882 - 1963) (1886 - 1966) Against normal art ideas and philosophy
Graphic designers began using elements from modern painting movements "Ism's" such as cubism, futurism, vorticism, and purism
Reductive geometric shapes
Mishapen figures 1910, Violin and Candlestick 1913, Nature Morte Amédée Ozenfant French cubist painter and writer
Alongside Le Corbusier he founded the Purist movment
Purism wanted to conceive clearly, execute loyally, exactly without deceits Edward
McKnight Kauffer American-born artist known for his avant garde graphic design and poster art
Studied at the California School of Design where he was sponsored and sent to Paris to further his study
Best known for the 140 posters he produced for the London Underground (1890 - 1954) (1917 - 1931) Zeitgeist Main Styles Key Figures Revolutions / Avant garde, wanted to change society through art
Responding to trauma of war with abstraction of reality and universal harmony Reductive geometry, straigh lines, and bold primary colors
Reduced visual elements to their most basic form
Started off using only vertical and horizontal lines
Russian Constructivism wanted to help construct a new utopian society
Rectillinear shapes, flat colors and dynamic movement Piet Mondrian Dutch painter and an important artist in the De Stijl art movement
Evolved a non-representational form which he called Neo-Plasticism
Painted using a strictly horizontal and vertical grid with black lines and the three primary colors (1872 - 1944) Composition II in Red, Blue and Yellow Composition in Yellow, Blue, and Red Theo van Doesburg Dutch artist, painter, poet, and architect
Best known for founding the De Stijl art movement, and De Stijl magazine in 1917
He was the ambassador of the movement, promoting it across Europe (1883 - 1931 ) Composition VII Contra-Composition of Dissonances, XVI Vladimir Tatlin Russian and Soviet painter and architect
One of the most important figures in the Russian avant-garde art movement of the 1920's, later becoming an important constructivism artist.
Most famous for his attemt to create "The Monument to the Third International" (1885 - 1953) Model for the Monument to the Third International Fishmonger Russian Construvist "Cold Climate"
Scotland, Austria, Germany
Organic flowing designs of Nouveau I evolved into more structured forms
Simplicity & clarity was favored
The Four & The Secessionists Zeitgeist Simple, clear, & mythical
Rectillinear Main Styles ( 1890 - 1910) Scotish architect, designer, watercolorist, and artist
Main representative of the Arts and Crafts movement in the United Kingdom
Key Figures Charles Rennie Mackintosh (1868 – 1928) Australian architect & urban planner based in Vienna
Contributed many landmarks to the Austrian skyline
Otto Wagner (1834 – 1896) Scotish artist
Style became a defining feature of the Glasgow Style (1890s) Margaret Macdonald (1865 - 1933) German Constructivism meets Russian Expressionism
Post war turmoil
Artists sought to use "language of feeling"
Germany's New Woman Movement brought respect to assertive women Zeitgeist Simple, clear, & mythical
Rectillinear Main Styles ( 1919 - 1933) German
Attended arts & crafts school
Member of the Die Brücke group
Key Figures Max Pechstein (1881 - 1955) German
Graphic Designer & Illustrator
Heavily involved in advertising, especially for film companies
Produced most of his work in Berlin
Heinz Schulz-Neudamm (1899 -1969) Swiss expressionist
Closely associated with the Bauhaus school
Part of the core of the Weimer Bauhaus Johannes Itten (1888 - 1965) Graphic artist and art director roles had greatly increased in the United States
Conventional design & typography flourished with the booming ad industry (1934 - 1944) Zeitgeist Main Styles Key Figures Commercial style
Very legible, structural type
Sweeping gradients and illustrated aesthetic Cassandre
Norman Rockwell (1945 - 1960)