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Theory and Substance of Human Development I

the genealogy of the common theoretical frameworks guiding human development research.

Han-yun Tseng

on 12 December 2010

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Transcript of Theory and Substance of Human Development I

frameworks guiding human development research Theory and Substance of Human Development I Developmental theories study how people grow and change over the course of a lifetime... It is now year two thousand and ten, there are still debates throughout the history of human development research... Early or Late Experience Continuity vs. Discontinuity Researchers do not look into physical changes as people grow, they also look into social, emotiona and cognitive development througout a lifetime... and there are a lot more... In this assignment, i use Pepper's world views as an organization strategy... Nature vs. Nuture The relative contributions of inheritance and the envioenemtn are the oldest issues in both philosophy and psychology... 2010 Are we more affected by events occurred in earliy childhood or does later experience plays an equal or more important role? 2 Does change occur smoothly over time or through a series of predetermined steps? 3 1 Also more to organize to create a genealogy of the theories I. Mechanistic Theorists in this family emphasize studying both efficient (external factors) and material (genes) causes as the best way of understanding behavior change over the life span. III.Organismic Theories in this family believe that human grow or change becuase of the effort to maintain equilibrium. And this change is driven internally and is unidirectional and univeral in nature. II.Contextualist This family views human development as a life long process of successive gains and losses. And the human development is both realistic and idealistic, and both internally and externally driven. Psychoanalytic theory Maturation thoery Constructivism Behaviorism Social Learning theory Information Processing Developmntal cognitive neuroscience Behavioral genetics Contextualist theory Socialcultural Perspective This thoery is influenced by the works of Freud, who emphasized the importance of the unconscious mind and early childhood experience. He also proposed that development occurs through a series of psychosexual stages. The work from Piaget suggested that children think differently than adults and proposed a stage thory of cognitive development. He took both nature and nurture perspective about human development and stressed the active roles that children play in gaining knowledge of the world. Behavioral theorist such as Waston and Skinner studied only observable behaviors, and focused on how environmental stimuli influenced the formation of consequent behaviors. They tended to take more nurture perspective. It was also proposed that the innate tendency specific to certain species may influence the connections between stimuli and the formation of conditioned behaviors Learning theory also focused on how the environment impacted behaviors. In social learning perspective, Bandura proposed that behaviors were shaped and learned by the observation of the social interactions in the environment. This perspective is more nuture-driven and universal. Theorists such as George A. Miller proposed an anology of computer to understand human minds. The information from the outside world was processed through as a serial logical rules. This perspective took both nature and nurture stands, and believed that behaviors were the end products of the interactions between the individual and the environemtal resource. This framework proposed an analogy of biological neural network to understand the relations between physiology and the development of cogntive abilities in human beings. The plasticity of neural network also implied that both nature and nurture play a role in human development. Theorist such as Gesell proposed that human development was driven by a serial and sequential biological determinants in orderly stages. This perspective was also drawn from evolutionary perspective that the development was pre-coded based on the developmental history of the species. It is a nurture-oriented perspective. Theorists such as Fuller and Thompson proposed that the understanding of the individual difference was driven by the growing knowledge of both genetic and environmental contributions.Therefore, this perspective emphasized the importance of both nature and nurture factors. Brofenbrenner, for example, proposed that in order to understand human development, it is important to see how biological factors interact with the environmental influences that exist in both macro and micro systems of children's environment. Theorist Vygotsky proposed that to understand child development, it is important to look into the influence of the external social environment, such as cultural expectation and societal rules of gender behaviors and morality. Theories in this family were tended to take nurture perspective and proposing the structural differences within a society rather than biological or chronological stages that influence the human development. 1940 1913 & 1948 1969 1982 1970s 1990s 1946 1962 1981 1977 What is it about Thank you Attachment Theory Achild need to develop a relationship with primary caregivers who serve as secure base for the child to explore the outside world. black box: Cognition Child plays an active role in development 1958 network modeling epigenesis equilibrium stage cognitive development
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