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Transcript of 7/6/17: ENGL120
English 120 - Composition II
Pay attention to Canvas and school email!
Ch 1: Intro to Arguments
Critical Race Theory and Reader Response Theory
"A Note to Young Immigrants" by Mitali Perkins (pgs486-488)
ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS:
Who is the intended audience?
What is the author's purpose?
Through what lens (perspective) is the author writing?
How would you characterize the tone and content?
How does the media give us insight into other cultures, yet also create perceptions that may distance us from truly understanding the lived experience of someone from that culture?
What activities or privileges do citizens of the United States take for granted that might be difficult or impossible for undocumented immigrants or their children?
be a (reading) quiz next class!
Overview of an
Argument in Context
Not a quarrel or fight
Does not imply anger or hostility
A creative and productive activity
Engage in high levels of inquiry, critical thinking, and rhetorical analysis
Not a Pro-Con Debate (necessarily)
Do not focus on a winning and loosing side
Focus on cooperative thinking and inquiry
Seek truth and present those truths with evidence
Explicit vs Implicit
direct and concrete
support by evidence and reason
use reasoning skills
indirect and abstract
poems, photos, short stories
still states a claim
Defining Features of Arguments
Require justification to support claims
Two or more conflicting assertions
An attempt to resolve a conflict using reason
Clarify and support your assertions
Combination of truth-seeking and persuasion
Do we want the best solution or to win the argument?
Taking responsibility for determining best answer or best solution
Making a reasonable case for claim
Not proving your claim
--what are you trying to do?
best solution/answer -- process of rational inquiry
texts do not interpret themselves
the role of the reader cannot be omitted from our understanding of literature
asks you (the reader) to examine, explain and defend your personal reaction to a reading.
this criticism/theory perspective stresses the importance of the
role of the reader
constructing the meaning
of a work of literature
asks you to:
explore why you like or dislike the reading
explain whether you agree or disagree with the author
identify the reading's purpose critique the text
There is no right or wrong answer to a reader response.
It is important that you demonstrate an understanding of the reading and clearly explain and support your reactions.
using in-text citations and examples
Questions to Consider As You Read a Text:
Critical Race Theory (CRT) emphasizes:
the importance of finding a way for diverse individuals to share their experiences
that an individual’s identity and experience of the world is not only rooted in their racial identifications, but also their membership to a specific class, gender, nation, sexual orientation, etc
reading diverse cultural texts as proof of the institutionalized inequalities racialized groups and individuals experience every day
We should consider the CRT approach as we read Charles Chesnutt's work:
We will do much more than simply identifying race, racism, and racialized characters in Chesnutt's (mostly) fictional works.
We will focus on the importance of examining and attempting to understand the socio-cultural forces that shape how we and others perceive, experience, and respond to racism and race-based issues.
We will treat Chesnutt's works as evidence of American culture’s collective values and beliefs.
Ulitmately, we are attempting to trace racism as both a theoretical and historical experience that affects all members of a community regardless of their racial affiliations or identifications.
--How has racism and race-based issues continued to be a pervasive component throughout dominant society?
--Are the issues that Chesnutt highlights still persistent and problematic?
: refers to the various social, political, and economic advantages white individuals experience in contrast to non-white citizens based on their racial membership. These advantages can include both obvious and subtle differences in access to power, social status, experiences of prejudice, educational opportunities, and much more.
refer to the seemingly minute, often unconscious, instances of prejudice that collectively contribute to racism and the subordination of racialized individuals by dominant culture.
: refers to the systemic ways dominant society restricts a racialized individual or group’s access to opportunities. These inequalities, which include an individual’s access to material conditions and power, are not only deeply imbedded in legal institutions, but have been absorbed into American culture to such a degree that they are often invisible or easily overlooked.
: In the context of CRT refers to the notion that race is a product of social thought and relations. It suggests that race is a product of neither biology nor genetics, but is rather a social invention.
Intersectionality and anti-essentialism
: These terms refer to the notion that one aspect of an individual’s identity does not necessarily determine other categories of membership. Individuals have potentially conflicting, overlapping identities, loyalties, and allegiances (CRT: An Introduction 10). In other words, we cannot predict an individual’s identity, beliefs, or values based on categories like race, gender, sexuality, religion, nationality, etc; instead, we must recognize that individuals are capable of claiming membership to a variety of different (and oftentimes seemingly contradictory) categories and belief systems regardless of the identities outsiders attempt to impose upon them.
"The Goophered Grapevine"
"Post-Bellum and Pre-Harlem”
Ch 2: Argument as Inquiry + Ch 8: Analyzing Arguments Rhetorically
Grammar Review: Sentence Problems
Truth-Seeking and Persuasion
--Exploratory essay examining all sides of an issue
--Argument as inquiry, thinking out issue
--Aggressive and one-sided
as the entry point into argumentative conversations
--focus on the exploratory process of reading and writing arguments
As we read Chesnutt's stories and essays, and literary criticism articles:
--think about the complex (or not so complex) issues within each
--place them in their own rhetorical contexts:
: recurring type of pattern (letter, cartoon, PAC websites, etc)
t: who wrote the thing and why?
(1) What audience is the writer writing for?
(2) What motivated and prompted the writing? Current event, personal event, ongoing issue?
(3) What is the writer's purpose? What do they hope to achieve?
--read with an open mind to believe and doubt claims made
--playing ideas against each other
--identifying sources of disagreement within the argument itself
Fragments, Comma Splices, and Fused Sentences
Every COMPLETE sentence must have at least one subject, one verb, and must express a complete thought.
If it doesn’t, it is a fragment.
After an hour, the dancers changed partners. And learned a different dance.
Correction: After an hour, the dancers changed partners and learned a different dance.
That summer, we had the time of our lives. Fishing in the morning hours and splashing in the lake after lunch.
Correction: That summer, we had the time of our lives, fishing in the morning hours and splashing in the lake after lunch. (Fragment is connected to the previous sentence by a comma.)
Run-on and fused sentences are the same thing.
You are making a run-on when you put two complete sentences (a subject and its predicate and another subject and its predicate) together in one sentence without separating them properly.
Example 1: My favorite show on Netflix is Chewing Gum I laugh hysterically the entire time I have watched the episodes over and over.
-This one sentence contains at least three complete sentences.
Correction: My favorite show on Netflix is Chewing Gum. I laugh hysterically the entire time. I have watched the episodes over and over.
--A SENTENCE FRAGMENT fails to be a sentence in the sense that it cannot stand by itself
A sentence fragment is an incomplete sentence, lacking either a subject or a verb, or both
--Students most often have trouble with dependent clauses—they have a subject and a verb, so they look like complete sentences, but they don’t express a complete thought.
--They’re called “dependent” because they can’t stand on their own (just like some people you might know who are SO dependent!). Look at these dependent clauses. They’re just begging for more information to make the thoughts complete:
Because his car was in the shop (…What did he do?)
After the rain stops (…What then?)
When you finally take the test (…What will happen?)
Since you asked (…Will you get the answer?)
If you want to go with me (…What should you do?)
Correction 1: My family bakes together nearly every night. We then get to enjoy everything we make together
. (added a period and new sentence)
Correction 2: My family bakes together nearly every night, and we then get to enjoy everything we make together
. (added a coordinating conjunction and a comma
Correction 3: After my family bakes together nearly every night, we get to enjoy everything we make together
. (a subordinating conjunction and a comma
are similar to run-on sentences because they also incorrectly connect independent clauses.
A comma splice occurs when two independent clauses are connected with only a comma.
As with a run-on sentence, there are a few different ways to correct a comma splice. Consider the following sentence and the revised versions that follow it.
Example 1: My family bakes together nearly every night, we then get to enjoy everything we make together.
General APA Guidelines
Always typed, double-spaced on standard-sized paper (8.5" x 11") with 1" margins on all sides
Use 12 pt. Times New Roman font
Include a page header (also known as the "running head") at the top of every page.
To create a page header/running head, insert page numbers flush right.
Type "TITLE OF YOUR PAPER" in the header flush left using all capital letters.
The running head is a shortened version of your paper's title and cannot exceed 50 characters including spacing and punctuation.
Major Paper Sections
(1) Title Page
(2) Abstract Page
(3) Main Body
(4) References Page
In-Class Writing #2:
In your own words, tell me what happened to the character
in "The Goophered Grapevine".
Briefly summarize how the grapevine affected Henry, his owner, other slaves, etc. What happened to them because of the grapevine?
Who are the characters?
Who is the narrator?
What is the setting
What is the plot?
What is the theme?
Are there any figures of speech?
Is there an overall conflict?
What does the title mean?
What is the point of this?
What genre of writing is this?
Do you see an argument?
Who is the intended audience?
When and in what publication was this first published?
What is Chesnut making a case for...if anything?
Do you see any modern day applicability and/or relevance?
Next Class, 7/7
Ms. Jones Absent!
Online Writing Assignment
Ch 3: The Core of an Argument
Ch 4: The Logical Structure of Arguments
Ch 5: Using Evidence Effectively
Grammar, Editing, and Proofreading (handout 2– pdf an Canvas)
APA Formatting – Workshop - Purdue OWL
Review Reader Response Logs (#1 - Due 7/13)
Reader Response Papers
RR#1 Due 7/13
--"...When I first broke into print seriously, no American colored writer had ever secured critical recognition..." (482)
--"Their race is no longer a detriment but a good selling point" (487)
--"The trend of public sentiment at [the time] was distinctly away from the Negro (...) socially he was outcast" (483).
--"At the time a literary work by an American of acknowledged color was a doubtful experiment, both for the writer and the publish, entirely apart from its intrinsic merit" (485).
--"It never occurred to me to claim any merit because of it, and I have always resented denial of anything on account of it" (485).
--"...all of my writings, with the exception of 'The Conjure Woman,' have dealt with the problems of people of mixed blood, which, while in the main the same as those of the true Negro, are in some instances and in some aspects much more complex and difficult treatment, in fiction as in life" (486).
In-Class Writing #1
an act of asking for information
a seeking truth, information, or knowledge
permission for photos + videos for social media and dept website: y/n