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Transcript of Reformation Revision
This is the name given to the protest movement that began in Germany in the sixteenth century to protest against the abuses in the Catholic Church.
Causes of the Reformation
• Abuses in the Church: the wealth and power of the Catholic Church.
Nepotism: this is when cardinals, bishops and nobles appoint relatives to important positions in the church.
Simony: this is the buying and selling of church positions.
Pluralism: this is when cardinal and bishops controlled more than one diocese.
Absenteeism: when cardinal and bishops neglected their diocese because they did not live in them.
Priests were often uneducated and could not read the Bible. Many behaved like Princes and were interested in power and wealth instead of religion.
: this encouraged people to question everything. Many people criticized the church for not following what was written in the Bible.
many people were jealous of the wealth and power of the church. Kings and Princes wanted to control the power and influence of the church.
this helped spread criticisms of the church more quickly e.g. Luther’s Ninety Five Theses
Can you name the figure pictured below?
• Luther wrote ninety five theses against the sale of indulgences. He nailed them to the church door at Wittenberg.
• The ninety five theses were translated into German and spread all over the country.
• The Catholic Church tried to get Luther to change his mind. He met with Cardinal Cajetan and John Eck but refused to change his ideas.
• The Pope sent Luther a Papal Bull threatening to excommunicate him if he refused to change his ideas.
• Luther burnt the Papal Bull in public and was excommunicated by the Pope.
• German Emperor Charles V called a Diet of Worms (Parliament) of German Princes and asked Luther to attend.
• Luther spoke at the meeting and refused to take back his teachings.
The Emperor then issued the Edict of Worms ordering Luther’s capture.
On his way home from Worms Luther was captured by Frederick the Wise of Saxony and put into safe hiding at Wartburg Castle where he translated the New Testament into German.
• Luther believed in Justification by Faith Alone, he said that only faith in God would allow a person to get to heaven and not praying, good works or indulgences.
• There were only two sacraments which were Baptism and the Eucharist.
• Princes and Kings should be head of the Church.
• Priests could marry.
• Church services should be in the native language (vernacular)
Spread of Lutheranism
• Many German Princes supported Luther and began to practice his religion in their states. They became known as Protestants.
• Luther died in 1546 and four months later a religious war broke out in Germany.
• The war lasted for nine years and ended with the Peace of Augsburg. Each ruler was now free to decide the religion of his / her state.
• Germany became divided along religious lines. The northern part was mainly Protestant and the southern states remained Catholic.
Can you remember the causes of the Reformation?
• Born in Germany in 1483.
• Studied to be a lawyer but changed his mind and became a monk.
• He became Professor of Theology at Wittenberg University.
• Luther was worried about how he would get to heaven.
• Luther disagreed with the selling of Indulgences (paying money to the church in order to get to heaven).
Explain the term 'indulgence'
What was the Diet of Worms?
Outline two major differences between Luther's beliefs and those of the Catholic Church.
Write 1/2 A4 page on The Counter Reformation page 160 - 161