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A World of Immigrants

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Jarod Roll

on 15 February 2016

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Transcript of A World of Immigrants

A World of Immigrants

HIS 318
Dr. Roll
Rise of industrial capitalism in the US only part of a global transformation in the 19th century
--free trade in capital, goods, people
--railroads, steam ships connect markets, speed information
--European immigrants to US experienced capitalist transformations in their home countries
Push factors:
--demise of artisanal craft economies
--introduction of commercial agriculture
--ethnic violence against Jews
Pull factors:
--promise of higher wages
--family connections
--cheap transportation costs/greater information
1870 to 1914: 30 million immigrants
--Early waves, northern and western Europe, as well as China, Latin America, and Japan
--Later waves, southern and eastern Europe
--waves followed the advance of capitalist markets into these areas
--work and politics defined by family and ethnic community
--language, religion, correspondence with home country
--often basis for trade union membership and solidarity (prior experience, availability of same language members, newspapers key)
--ex. Molly Maguires
Occupational hierarchies:
--length of time in US
Immigrants who arrived after 1890, particularly from southern and eastern Europe, had fewer industrial skills: employment in machine-driven production industries
--exacerbated tensions with other immigrant groups with skills
Ethnic tensions also exacerbated:
--religion (Protestant vs. Catholic)
--skilled vs. unskilled
In 1880s, white workers targeted Chinese in California
--fear of lowered wages, claimed Chinese were too foreign
--1877: Order of Caucasians (white working-class political group)
--1882 Chinese Exclusion Act
--1908 Japanese excluded
Recruiting often done through group-specific means:
--kongsi: Chinese welfare and settlement associations
--padrones: Latin American labor agents
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