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Intellectual Disability

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by

Lai Hui Min

on 1 August 2014

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Transcript of Intellectual Disability

Intellectual
Disability

What is Intellectual Disability?
“Intellectual Disability is characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as express in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. This disability originates before age of 18.”
Causes
Characteristics
Change in Terminologies
Idiot
Imbecile
Moron
Mental Retardation
Intellectual Impairment
Developmental Disability
Change in Association name
Singapore Association for Retarded Children (SARC)
Movement for the Intellectually Disabled of Singapore (MINDS)
Levels of
Intellectual
Disability
Mild
IQ 50-70
1.
2.
3.
4.
Severe
IQ 20-35
Moderate
IQ 35-50
Profound
IQ <20
Prevalence
Prenatal
(before birth)
Criteria for Intellectual Disability
Age criteria:
Before age of 18
Limitation in Intellectual Functioning
Limitation in Adaptive Skills
IQ test: 70 & below
Deficits in at least two areas of adaptive behavior
If you were an employer,
hire someone with
What comes to your mind
when you hear the term
'Intellectual Disability'?
Barriers
Intellectual and academic
Cognitive
Social
Employment
Services available
Postnatal
(after birth)
Perinatal
(during birth)
Biomedical
Social
Behavioral
Chromosomal, single-gene or metabolic disorders
Syndromes
Cerebral dysgenesis
Maternal illnesses
Parental age
Poverty
Maternal malnutrition
Domestic violence
Lack of access to prenatal care
Parental drug and alcohol use
Smoking
Immaturity
Lack of preparation for parenthood
Parental cognitive disability
Biomedical
Social
Behavioral
Premature birth
Birth injury
Neonatal disorders
Lack of access to birth care
Parents rejecting their caretaking duties
Abandoning the child
Lack of medical referral for intervention services upon diagnosis
Educational
Biomedical
Social
Behavioral
Educational
Traumatic brain injury
Malnutrition
Meningoencephalitus
Seizure disorders
Degenerative disorders
Impaired child-caregiver interaction
Lack of adequate stimulation
Family poverty
Chronic illness in the family
Child abuse and neglect
Domestic violence
Inadequate safety measures
Social depression
Difficult child behaviors
Inadequateness in early intervention and special educational services
Insufficient family support
Impaired parenting
Delayed diagnosis
Co-morbidities
Social and personal
Adaptive behavior
Difficulties sustaining attention and concentration
Face problems attending to tasks given
Slower learning rate
Lower academic skills
Problems with working memory and relating information
Language delay
Social relationships affected (friendship)
Low self-esteem
Conceptual skills:
Slow development in language and literacy, concept of money and time
Social skills:
Interpersonal skills, ability to self-direct
Practical skills:
Poor self-help skills
Higher-functioning Intellectual Disability
Schizophrenia
Autism Spectrum Disorder
Self-injury
Low-functioning Intellectual Disability
Common forms
Depression and anxiety
Aggression
Obsessive Compulsion Disorder
Anti-social behavior
Down Syndrome
Fragile X Syndrome
Williams Syndrome
Prader-willi Syndrome
Approximately in the United States
Approximately people with intellectual disabilities in Singapore
(Lim and Quah, 2004)
(Reynolds, Zupanick and Dombeck, 2014)
1%
40, 000
Identification
1. Intelligence Quotient Test
Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale - Fifth Edition
Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-IV
2. Adaptive Behavior Skills Assessment
AAMR Adaptive Behavior Scales - School Education 2
Scales of Independent Behavior - Revised
3. Academic Sills Assessment
Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement - II
Wechsler Individual Achievement Test - II
Observations
Sample works
School academic assessments
Effective interventions/practices
Developing an Individualized Support Plan (ISP)
MLE- Mediated Learning Experiences
Dolls for Downs
Clothes made for people with Down Syndrome
INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY
?
WOULD YOU
THE END
Read this
Whiteread Walk

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(Schalock et al, 2010, p5, as cited in Nelson & Israel, 2013)
by Joshua Clover
Help Pri 1 & 2 pupils who are at risk of failing in school
Learning Support Program (LSP)
Chia Yan Xian Cassandra
Chua Jin Hui Amenda
Foo Wee Jun
Gan Hui Ning
Lai Hui Min
Nicolette Abigail Yeo Wei Ling
Priscilla Tan Yan Ying
Full transcript