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The Chemistry... of Biology

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on 14 January 2014

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Transcript of The Chemistry... of Biology

The Chemistry... of Biology
Reactions in Biology
Can form up to 4 bonds
What does it take to build a living thing?
Basic Carbon Molecules

Carbohydrates-sugars, starches, cellulose
Lipids-fats, oils and waxes
Proteins- meats, eggs, enzymes, hair
Nucleic Acids-DNA and RNA

A Typical Condensation Reaction
Glucose + Fructose --> Sucrose + ______
A Typical Cleavage
Cleavage (hydrolysis) - When water molecules are used to break a large molecule down
What chemcials or
Start by thinking what goes in and out of you. What chemicals?

Now what are those chemicals made with?
The two main divisions of chemistry

1._________- the study of chemical reactions involving carbon. Ex. Formation of proteins, fats, oils and nucleic acids

2. __________chemistry- The chemical reactions and properties off all the elements in the periodic table, with the exception of carbon. Ex. Salts and Oxides
It has _____ valence e-
Forms ________ bonds
Chains of only carbon and hydrogen
Methane - CH4
Ethane - C2H6
Propane - C4H10
Butane - C4H10
Octane- HcH18
Double Bonds
Double bonds- change ane to ene
Triple bonds- change ane to yne
Functional Groups
These are just groups of atoms that will bond to a carbon backbone
Methyl-(CH3) found in fats, oils
Hydroxyl- (-OH) found in sugars and alcohol
Ketone- (-CO) sugars
Amino- (-NH3) amino acids and proteins
Phophate- (-PO4) phospholipids, DNA, RNA
Sulfhydryl- (-SH) some proteins
Functional Groups
These matter because they change reactivity and polarity.
Do ethanol and sugars dissolve in water?
When carbon molecules go 3-D
Carbon molecules tend to fold and bend (getting comfy)
Condensation-making one molecule from many
Cleavage-making many molecules from one

Breaking complex sugars and carbohydrates require water to break them down
Made of C, H and O, with a 2:1 ratio of H to O
Used as energy storage or structure
There are 3 types
Monosaccharides and Disaccharides

Mono and Di mean One and Two
Saccharide means sugar
Generaly they are formed into rings
Can be labelled by how many carbons they have Ex 6 C = hexose

Type of reaction?
Poly means many and we know what
saccharides means so...
Examples are starch, cellulose, glycogen and chitin
Starch is a polysaccharide
used for ______ in ______
Cellulose is a polysaccharide used for _______ in _________
Glycogen is a polysaccharide used for ________ in ________
Where is it stored?
A special bonding pattern
Chiton is a polysaccharied used for _______ in ______
Lipids include molecules that serve as coatings or energy storage like:
The list of lipids we will cover:

So you can tell that storing energy and
providing a coating is not the only job.

What other jobs might they perform?
Fats and Oils
These are grouped together because they are both triglycerides.
This just means they have
a glycerol (a 3 carbon chain)
bonded to 3 fatty acids)
Saturated and Unsaturated
Which one is bad?
What do they look like?
So that means
Saturated fats are chains that have all single bonded carbon. (Saturated with H)

Unsaturated has carbon atoms that are double or triple bonded. (Unsaturated with H)
Saturated fat packs together so it is solid at room temp.
Soft, solid substances that protect fruit, leaves, feathers, beehives and ear canals.
What molecule are they similar to?
Phospholipids have a water soluble (the phosphate head) and non soluble (fatty acid tails) portion that makes it good for what it does.
Act as messengers in a body.

Vitamin A and E
Anabolic Steroids
These are similar to testosterone
and when steroids are mentioned we are quick to think about these
They get a bad rap, but they can help people with health conditions
Proteins: they perform a wide variety of jobs and come in an equally large number forms.
Some roles include:

1. structural proteins-keratin, collagen
2. enzymes-lactase, hexokinase
3. transport proteins-move things in and out of cells
4. antibodies-part of the immune system
5. shape and function of a cell depends on proteins present
Protein Structure
Amino acids form peptide bonds and become a chain of amino acids.
Is this a cleavage or condensation reaction?
A polypeptide
3-D Protein Structure
After the initial sequence of amino
acids is linked together, the protein
is not yet a finished product.
Protein Deficiency
3-D Protein Structure
A mutation in DNA can have a trickle
down effect. What does this mean?
Proteins that get too hot or are in an
environment that becomes too acidic
or basic can become denatured.
Globular or Fibrous
Cross-linking of polypeptide chains
can create strong fibrous proteins

Polypeptides can
also clump together
to form globular
proteins like myoglobin
and hemoglobin.
There are 20 amino acids that have the same structure except for the R group.
Functional Groups
Each has a name that is often shown as a 3 letter abbreviation
What are the jobs that proteins perform?
Balance Your Diet
Where do these come from?
What are they used for?
What happens if you don't get enough?
Nucleic Acids
Adenosone phosphate
Coenzymes that help transport and build
Structure of a Nucleic Acid
Nitrogen containing base
Five carbon sugar (ribose or deoxyribose)
A phosphate group
Can't find the Nucleic Acids on a label?
They are primarily made from amino acids. Our body just rearranges the atoms and and attaches the other parts
DNA a Polymer of Nucleic Acids
What is DNA's role in the cell?
4 Groups of Organic Molecules.

What are the subunits for polymers? What are the subunits like?

What are the specific types within each group?

What roles do these play in the cell?

How does an organism acquire these molecules?


A molecule will enter the specific active site
Exam 1 Review Chapters 1 and 2

Chapter 1

What are the characteristics of life?
ex. from just molecules in one cell to the entire biosphere
ex. cellular respiration, cell reparation
3. Motility
4. Responds to stimuli


Chapter 2 Chemistry of Biology




Carbon and Living things
1. Most common elements to life
2. Molecules that they are found in

3. Functional Groups

4. 4 main molecular groups
Molecular Flash Cards
Practice Color Coding elements

1. Functional Groups
2. 4 main molecular structures
3. Polymers of molecular monomers
1- pg 40 2- pg 40,42, 45, 49, Notes 3. Notes
Main Molecular Functions

1. Carbohydrates 2 of them
2. Lipids 4 of them
3. Proteins 6* of them
4. Nucleic Acids 2 of them
Questions to Consider:

1. Where do these molecules fit into our diet?

2. Why is each important to include in our diet?

3. Review the Enzyme Lab
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