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Top Down Strategies

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by

Rosy Martinez

on 6 June 2015

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Transcript of Top Down Strategies

TOP DOWN STRATEGIES
design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
Students fail the TOEFL test because, they do not have good reading strategies that help them understand the readings that appears in the exams, but when students know this strategies could be very helpful to develop the ability to read finding ideas in accurate manner, avoiding them to fail the exam. This, means that the students could learn more about reading strategies base on what they read and understand.
Top down reading strategies for improving TOEFL reading skills in students of fourth year of bachelors degree in English
OVERALL HYPOTHESYS
HYPOTHESYS
Statement of the problem
How the uses of top down reading strategies help students to improve their TOEFL reading skills?
Research Question
OVERALL OBJECTIVE

OBJECTIVES
Determine the effectiveness of using top down strategies for improving TOEFL reading skills in students of fourth year of the bachelor Degree in English at Universidad de Oriente
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
Apply top down reading strategies for increasing vocabulary in students of fourth year of the bachelor Degree in English at Universidad de Oriente.
Assess the use of top down reading strategies enhance the interpretation of text in students of fourth year of the bachelor Degree in English at Universidad de Oriente.
Top Down strategies help students to improve TOEFL reading skills.
SPECIFIC HYPOTHESYS
The use top down reading strategies improves the vocabulary in students of fourth year of the bachelor Degree in English at Universidad de Oriente.
The use of top down reading strategies enhances interpreting figurative language in students of fourth year of the bachelor Degree in English at Universidad de Oriente.
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
TOP DOWN PROCESS
BOTTOM UP
PREVIEWING
ANTICIPATING
USING BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE AND PERSONAL EXPERIENCE
IDENTIFYING THE MAIN IDEA

IDENTIFYING KEY SENTENCE OF A PARAGRAPH OR PORTION OF TEXT.
MAKING A SUMMARY
TOEFL
READING COMPREHENSION
INCREASE VOCABULARY
LITERATURE REVIEW
THEORY.
Gunning (1996) identifies three main theories of reading comprehension. These theories are Schema Theory, Mental Models, and Proposition Theory
.

METHODOLOGY
This research was carried out at Universidad de Oriente by applying an overlapping one of the research methods which is the quantitative approach in order to determine the effectiveness of using top down strategies for improving TOEFL reading skills.
TYPE OF RESEARCH
The research methodology used in this investigation was the Action Research.
The Action Research it aims to contribute both, the practical concerns of people in an immediate problematic situation and goals of social science by joint collaboration within a mutually acceptable ethical framework.
INSTRUMENTATION
It consists on giving students a short reading and some questions that they had to answer based on the reading. This test was given to the students in order to collect data about “Top Down Reading Strategies For Improving TOEFL Reading Skills In Students Of Fourth Year Of The Bachelor Degree In English At The Universidad De Oriente”.
Questioning from Reading
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

CONCLUSIONS
Based on the data collected and interpreted, we as a group concluded that top down strategies do help students improve their reading skills, especially since one of the problems when reading is to comprehend and search what the main idea of the text is.
As a group we concluded that top down strategies not only improve reading skills, but also helps students gain new vocabulary, since one of the problems in the TOEFL test is that student do not understand the readings because of the scientific vocabulary that is used in the test.
We concluded that the top down strategies allows the students to understand ambiguous text because it activates high level schemas that guides the reading process, in this way prior knowledge and reader expectations become essential elements in the comprehension process.
Another aspect that we concluded as a group is that the top down reading strategies teaches students how to read appropriately by introducing them to literature as a whole, instead of teaching students to read by sounding out each word in a sentence without even knowing or understanding what they are reading.
Another important thing that we concluded as a group is that top down reading strategies are helpful to those learning a second language, because they help students concentrate on the whole meaning of a passage.
RECOMENDATIONS
As a group we recommend the teachers to get acquaintance with this reading strategies since, they are able to improve the reading skills of students, especially if they are to take the TOEFL test.
To teachers it would be a good idea to implement this strategies to help students improve comprehension of text since it would become helpful for students who are to take the TOEFL test.
Since one of the problems that students face when they are reading paragraphs or text is that they don’t understand what they read because they lack vocabulary, a good way to help them increase their vocabulary is to use the top down strategies.
A good method to use in in order to teach English are the top down strategies since they help students concentrate also they help them look for the meaning of what they are reading.
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