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Transcript of WJEC Personality
Describe yourself in 3 words – please record!
From today's lesson what do you think the outcomes should be?
Personality and Sports Performance
Now consider if these words change when you get a bad tackle in a game/fail at something/fall off your horse
How did you end up like this?
Stable and enduring (doesn’t change/lasts a long time)
Evaluation of the Trait approach
Behaviour is not always predictable.
Doesn’t account for;
the fact that people adapt their behaviour in response to a particular environmental situation.
Changes to personality over time
Individuals who actively alter their personality
Set of traits (characteristics e.g.??)
Unique (everyone has own personality)
But permits a comparison (we share some similar traits)
With your group - read the definitions
On your white boards note down the terms that seem to be consistent
Born with them (innate)
The situation determines them
Bit of both of the above
We learn them – through watching others and having our behaviour reinforced or punished
How do we form our personality?
Suggests that Personality is related to body type largely predetermined during embryonic development
Biological Theory (Sheldon)
Can you think of any? TASK 3
Drawbacks to Biological Theory
Split into three types:
– lazziness and pleasure seeking,
Unlikely to show leadership qualities
– assertive and ambitious, more
likely to show leadership qualities
– shy and nervous
He didn’t say that anyone is definitely one type of another, rather body type determines what we are most ‘likely’ like
Being ‘fat’ doesn’t make you lazy, being muscular doesn’t make you confident and being thin doesn’t make you shy
Peoples personalities are far more complex than this suggests
Using an example, describe what is meant by the term personality
Identify and explain which of Sheldon’s personality types are most likely to take part in:
a. Team games
b. Individual sports
A trait is a characteristic of personality which is said to be inherited by a child at birth.
Suggests that behaviour is innate and genetically programmed.
Traits are thought to be stable
Behaviour=function of personality B=F(P)
Within your group - select a teacher
The teacher goes through the information with the group and then work together to complete the questions at the end
TASK 4 - Example
Revise for your assessment....
1. What did Eysenck and Cattell believe?
Describe Social learning theory (Bandura) and interactionist theory (Lewin); Outline strengths and weaknesses of each theory
Explain how each theory relates to sporting performance; Evaluate each theory and propose possible developments
Discuss the validity of the relationship between personality and sport
Look at the images on your desk
Have a go at the
Remember to justify....
2. How can we apply Eysenck's personality types to sport?
Part of the Trait Theory
Narrow Band Approach
Evaluation of the social learning approach
Does not take into account genetically inherited factors.
Suggests why people become interested in sport.
Suggest why people adopt and healthy, active and balanced lifestyle.
Only provides one explanation.
States that people can be categorised
under two headings
What type of personality is most likely to be successful in sport and why?
What are the weaknesses of
the trait approach?
States that behaviour changes with the situation
The environment (including the behaviour of others) influences behaviour
Social Learning Theory
We observe others and copy them.
Observe --- Identify ---- reinforce ---- copy
Young boys watch football celebrations and copy them with their friends!
Increased aggression learned from others
Rather than innate, we learn from other people
Especially those we hold in high esteem e.g. role models, friends, parents
We are most likely to learn reinforced behaviour
Combines trait and social learning theory
Personality is a mixture of:
Interactionist Theory (Lewin)
Explains twice as much as the social learning theory and the trait theory (Bowers, 1977).
Offers an explanation why the personalities of sport performers can change in different situations.
Not a simple approach
Is used by most psychologists.
Evaluation of the Interactionist approach
And the current situation/social learning
Personality stable most of the time e.g. Usually a calm player
But a change of environment can alter behaviour
Summed up as:
B = f (P x E) where behaviour is a function of personality and environment
Please use the sticky labels
1. Things I know
2. Things I don't
Reflection of Learning
e.g. Provoked by a bad challenge so reacts angrily
Particularly if environmental factors are strong e.g. An important match
BYE BYE Have a Nice Day!
provide an example from life or sport to show your understanding of what social learning theory is
TASK 4: Example??
Complete tasks 5, 6 and 7
TASK 6: Share with a partner your homework
- How did you decide to deal with your sports performer? and why?!
Have a go of the questionnaire
Strengths of Questionnaires
Lots of subjects can be tested at a time
Therefore a quicker, more efficient system to use
They are cheap/cost effective
Results gathered are numerical/objective measures achieved
Weaknesses of Questionnaires
Results vary when test is repeated
Participants affected by mood, situation, attitudes
Respondents may lie or give socially acceptable answers
Misunderstand the question
Closed questions limit answer options
Strengths of Profiling
Should we bother?
Does personality matter?
Does it even exist?
TASK 1 a.
What are the strengths and weaknesses of using questionnaires to measure personality?
Strengths of Interviews
Weaknesses of Interviews
Participant may lie/socially acceptable answers
Status of interviewer may affect answers given
Strengths of Observations
Possibly more honest response?
Less confusion of questions
Responder able to give an open response
Weaknesses of Observations
If the person is aware that they are being watched they may not act normally and may change their behaviour
See performers in their own environment
Individuals may behave more naturally
Useful to monitor progress
Questionnaires, observations and self reports are not reliable as people can fix answers
Evidence is too general – personality alone cannot predict behaviour
Research isn’t suitably supported by evidence e.g. introverts are just as successful as extroverts and can do the same sport
Weaknesses of Profiling
Time efficient and effective
Can gain an understanding of each individual
Provides personality strengths and weaknesses
Put in place strategies to help athlete potential e.g. anxiety control
Type of coaching an athlete best responds to
Explain the advantages and disadvantages of using personality profiling in sport 
Right side = agree
Left side = disagree
Is there a link between personality and sporting performance?
Past Exam Questions
Give them a go
of Personality Theories
Social Learning Theory
(a) The performance and behaviour of sports performers may be affected by their personalities. Discuss this statement, using suitable examples, with reference to both trait and interactionist theories of personality. 
(a) Trait theory
1. Inherited characteristics/born with/innate/genetic;
3. Same behaviour in a variety of situations;
4. Behaviour is predictable.
5. E.g. aggressive in all situations/extrovert in all situations/etc.
(Sub max 4 marks)
6. B = f (PE)/behaviour is a function of personality and environment;
7. Inherited traits are amended by environment/situation;
8. Leads to stable behaviour in a certain situation;
9. Change environment change behaviour.
10. Eg: normally calm, but becomes aggressive in sport environment.
sub max 4 marks
1. High researcher: respondent ratio/lots of subjects at a time/quick/efficient;
2. Cheap/cost effective;
3. Numerical/objective measures achieved;
4. Reliable. Sub max of 3 marks
(Do not credit easy)
(b) What are the advantages and disadvantages of using questionnaires to provide psychological information? (4 marks)
5. Weak validity/non specific/too general/too simplistic for complex areas;
6. Tendency to give expected answer/lie/respond with demand characteristics/biased questions;
7. Difficult to self-assess;
8. Ambiguous questions/misinterpretation.
Sub max of 3 marks
Have a go at this personality test.
Just follow the instructions on the video......
Note down key terms and their meaning relating to personality
Create your own version of a definition of personality
The Bobo Doll Experiment
PEER EXPLAIN What has just been said...