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Transcript of 1800s Revolutions
NAPLES SERBIA CONGRESS SYSTEM Europe in 1812 Europe in 1815 THE CONCERT OF EUROPE:
Congress System developed after the Congress of Vienna ended Napoleon’s Rule.
Major powers agreed to consult with each other from time to time (if something affected Europe as a whole.)
Called “Concert of Europe” = we're all in this together CONGRESS OF VIENNA
Balance of Power
Compensation The principle of collective security was established.
The Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle 
The Congress of Troppau 
The Congress of Laibach 
The Congress of Verona 
Their goal was to define and monitor the status quo. NATIONALISM AND LIBERALISM=
UNDERESTIMATED Spain wants Constitutional government from Ferdinand VII
Naples wants Constitutional Government from Ferdinand I (King of the two Sicilies) CONGRESS SYSTEM ENACTED
Congress of Troppau (1820): Stable gov’ts might intervene to restore order in countries experiencing revolution.
Congress of Laibach (1821): put down revolution in Naples and restore absolutist government.
Congress of Verona (1822): French intervention in Spain Greece on the Ruins of Missilonghi by Delacroix, 1827 The Decembrist Revolt 1825 1821-1830
Greeks rose up against the Ottoman Empire for their independence
Great Britain, France, and Russia help achieve victory
Why did Europe support this revolution and not the others? Russians Revolt
Russians = Western ideas during the Napoleonic Wars.
Czar Alexander I died suddenly... no direct heir
Constantine or Nicholas?
Constantine says "Hey, you can have it"
Russian troops were to take an oath of allegiance to Nicholas I, who was less popular than Constantine
Dec. 26, 1825 a Moscow regiment marched into the Square in St. Petersburg and refused to take the oath. TSAR NICHOLAS
Violently puts the revolt down
NATIONALISM Independence from Ottoman Empire
One in 1804, put down
Next in 1815: Successful FRANCE BELGIUM ITALY GERMANY Charles X:
Dissolved new chamber of deputies
censorship of press
reduced voting to nobles
“July Revolution”: revolt in 1830 by workers, students, intelligent middle class
Charles X abdicated and fled France New king = Prince Louis Philippe (cousin to Charles X)
called “the Bourgeoisie King” (bankers and businessmen)
called “King of the French” TRICOLORE
Revolution sparked others across Europe WHEN FRANCE SNEEZES...
EUROPE CATCHES A COLD revolted and gained independence from Holland
different language, religion, economic life
inspired by France, led by students and industrial workers
Neutrality JULY REVOLUTION
By Delacroix POLAND Russia's Nicholas I, put down an independence rebellion
Created “a land of graves and crosses” in Poland RISORGIMIENTO: (resurgence)
nationalists try to unify; too disorganized
Guiseppe Mazzini and Young Italy
Austria crushed them Guiseppe
Mazzini demonstrations led by professors and students
wanted constitutions for minor states
movement crushed by Austria WHY MORE REVOLUTIONS?
severe food shortages
downturn in economy
discontent with wages
poor relief was overburdened
terrible urban living conditions
nationalists and reformers "Spring of Nations" or
"the Year of Revolution" CORRUPTION:
Louis Phillippe Abdicated
Second French Republic declared
Prince Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, nephew of great emperor elected
December 20, 1848 installed as President
not dedicated to republican institutions, became Emperor Napoleon III in 1852 NAPOLEON III FRANCE...
AGAIN ITALIANA NEW RESORGIMIENTO...
attempted revolutions, all areas of the country
all failed after 18 months
French troops took Rome in July 1849
Pope Pius IX
Charles Albert, King of Sardinia = ? GERMAN
STATES Prussians Attempt to Unify
Couldn't agree, "small Germany" or "Large Germany?"
Failed to get the Prussian King to agree to it March Revolution February Revolution AUSTRIA Hungarian Uprising
Declarations of War
Klemens von Metternich?
Abdication of the King
Why did it fail? POLAND POLISH INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENT
If at first you don't succeed... try, try again. And again... and again... and again...
area controlled by Prussia attempted to rise up for independence
Crushed by Prussian Forces
1849 = officially Prussian, no sympathy