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The Spirit of Independence
Transcript of The Spirit of Independence
Enforcing Trade Laws
- Passed in 1764, lowered the tax on sugar
The Sugar Act
- This law required all printed material to have a stamp on it
- If colonists wanted to print anything, they had to pay the tax to get the stamp on it
The Stamp Act
Opposition to the Stamp Act
- Samuel Adams, a representative in Boston, helped start a group to protest the Stamp Act called the Sons of Liberty.
- They urged colonists to boycott stamps and other British products.
- A year later, the Stamp Act was repealed
- These new acts placed a tax on anything imported (glass, tea, paper)
- Women created groups called the Daughters of Liberty and told people to make their own clothes and don't buy British goods
- The Boston Massacre
Fighting broke out between the colonists and the redcoats
Trouble in Massachusetts
- Colonial leaders put up propaganda posters in major cities
Spreading the News
- Parliament sent troops to Boston (called "redcoats") to calm the rebellions
- Parliament reacts by repealing all of the Townshend Acts (except the one on tea)
- Some people are happy, but others joined committees of correspondence
- Britain then passed the Tea Act. This allowed the East India Company to have total control of the tea market.
Boston Tea Party
- 3 tea ships arrived to Boston and the Sons of Liberty dressed up as Indians and threw 342 chests of tea overboard as a sign of rebellion.
- These were the new laws King George III passed after the Boston Tea Party, because he needed more control over the colonies.
The Coercive Acts
- They also closed Boston Harbor until Massachusetts paid for the dumped tea and did not allow town meetings
- The colonists renamed these acts the Intolerable Acts
- In 1774, 55 delegates from every colony except Georgia met to discuss what they were going to do about the British control.
Meeting in Philadelphia
- Their decisions were:
No British goods could be bought or used in the colonies
No colonial goods would be sold to Britain
Every colony would create a militia to defend themselves against the British
- Colonists trained soldiers to be ready quickly (called minutemen).
- British general, Thomas Gage, was ordered to take away the weapons of the Massachusetts militia.
He found out there was a weapons storage facility at Concord and sent his 700 troops there.
- "The shot heard 'round the world"
- These are considered to be the first battles to officially start the American Revolution
Lexington and Concord
- The minutemen were led by Colonel William Prescott
The Battle of Bunker Hill
- The Americans eventually lost because they ran out of ammunition and had to retreat, but the British lost many men
Second Continental Congress
Loyalists vs Patriots
- In 1775, the colonists met again and decided the colonies should start governing themselves by:
Olive Branch Petition
- This was a peace offering given to King George III
- The delegates of the Second Continental Congress asked Thomas Jefferson to draft a Declaration of Independence.
It was approved on July 4, 1776
- Consists of 4 parts:
Declaration of Natural Rights
List of Grievances
Resolution of Independence
The Declaration of Independence
New British Policies
- King George III issued the Proclamation of 1763 (which did not allow the colonists to move past the Appalachian Mountains)
Paul Revere and William Dawes rode ahead of the British troops to warn the colonists that the "British are coming"
- At Lexington:
- About 70 minutemen led by Captain John Parker were outnumbered by the British and had to retreat
- He sent 10,000 troops to enforce this and keep peace with the Native Am.
- After the French and Indian War, Britain needed more money so the king started taxing the colonists
- The British Prime Minister, George Grenville, was upset the colonists were smuggling goods so he made the writs of assistance
- Grenville thought the new low tax would convince the colonists to pay instead of smuggling.
- Patrick Henry, a representative in Virginia, passed a resolution saying that only colonial representatives should tax its citizens
Lesson 1 - No Taxation Without Representation
Lesson 2 - Uniting the Colonists
Five colonists died
The first was Crispus Attucks
- Rebellions forced ships in NY and Philadelphia to turn back
- They allowed British soldiers to live among the colonists.
Parliament also passed the Quebec Act
- This created a new government for Canada and extended British rule down to the Ohio River Valley
Lesson 3 - A Call to Arms
- They called themselves the Continental Congress
- At Concord (North Bridge):
- Minutemen were ready and were firing at the British while they marched. British troops retreated back to Boston.
- His strategy
Lesson 4 - Declaring Independence
Led by George Washington
Create an organized army (Continental Army)
Committees to communicate with other groups/countries
Setting up a post office
Printing their own money
- He said "NO" and sends more troops
- This provided Britain with advantages