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The Critical Period: The Articles of Confederation & Creating the Constitution
Transcript of The Critical Period: The Articles of Confederation & Creating the Constitution
The Articles of Confederation & Creating the Constitution English colonists brought with them the ideas of the Enlightenment and limited government. In time, these ideas began to shape the ideal of American government and the actions of the colonists. Articles of Confederation the agreement, effective in 1781, that established the first central government of the United States. ...but it was WEAK Congress lacked key powers...
could not raise taxes or regulate trade.
could not make states obey the laws it passed.
9 of 13 state delegations had to agree before Congress could act.
The Articles could only be changed with the consent of all 13 state legislatures. it created... Single unit of Government, Congress.
Congress was unicameral in structure, with each states electing its delegates each year.
Each state had one vote in Congress. Things Congress could do Make war and peace
Make treaties and handle ambassadors
Borrow money and set up a money system
Build a navy and raise an army
Set standards of weights and measures
Settle disputes between the states Problems States stopped cooperating with each other and with the National Government. They refused to supply troops or money.
Some made their own treaties with other nations.
Most raised their own military forces.
They taxed goods from other states and banned trade with some states.
They printed their own money ...other Issues The economies of many states struggled as a result of all the bickering and poor planning.
The economic crisis led to Shays’ Rebellion in Massachusetts. The need for a STRONGER government State delegates meet to try and revise the Articles of Confederation...
...turned in the Constitutional Convention...
...decided to just replace the A of C. On May 5th, 1787 delegates from 12 states met in Philadelphia
Decided to create a new government with a written Constitution instead of just fixing the Articles of Confederation
Mostly written by James Madison and Alexander Hamilton
Delegates agree that the new government should have 3 branches The Need for Change 2 Plans Called for three branches of government.
Representation would be based on population or the monies paid to the federal government in tax revenues.
Good for big states. The Virginia Plan Called for unicameral legislature, with each state equally represented. Multiple executives. Judiciary chosen by executives.
Good for small states. The New Jersey Plan Conneticut Compromise Proposal for a bicameral legislature:
2 from each state House of Representatives
# based on state population, each state gets at least 1 3/5 Compromise
South wants slaves to count as population for representatives, north doesn’t
Compromise that slaves = 3/5 person Constitution is signed in 1787 Saves the Union!