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Transcript of Ottoman Empire
By 1400 the Mongols had left the Arab Empire after the plague killed Millions.
The Turks from Anatolia had weathered the Mongol invasion better than the Arabs or Persians. They didn't lose the armies, rulers, and cities that the Arabs did.
After consolidating Anatolia around a single Sultan, the Islamic Ottoman Turks moved into former Arab lands. In some places the Arabs were happy to have organization and control from fellow Muslims. The Turks allowed freedom, but collected taxes for services and protection. Only Saudi Arabia was not directly occupied.
Many Turk clans had been educated Muslim bureaucrats working for the Mongols and just took over the political and economic role in the Middle East.
The Turks were suspicious of the Arabs, Kurds, and Persians. Unlike the Mongols The Turks had a uneasy truce and could be violent to all. The Turks were also hostile to the Christians of Eastern, Central Europe, and Russia. By 1450 they began conquests of Western Turkey, Greece, the Balkans, The Black Sea and Austria. By 1650 they had conquered Eastern Europe and parts of Austria. During this time they also fought civil conflicts against Arabs and Kurds. They also had to contend with Turkish Sultan rivalries as sons used slave armies to control the Sultanate.
The Ottoman Economy was not geared towards world trade like the Arab and Mongol Empires had been. The Turks mistrusted Arabs, Persians, Kurds, and Christians. Money and resources when into a powerful army that expanded, but also defended the empire from external and internal threats.
Sultan controlled prices and guilds. Merchant class was not free because many were foreigners.
Ottoman tax collectors collected grain from great plantations to redistribute to the government/army. Silk road was fragmented, Ottomans were geographically surrounded by enemies, and Europeans controlled ocean trade.
Sultans were absolutists. After 1453 they ruled from Istanbul (Constantinople).
Sultans controlled the armies and the generals. They also controlled the powerful bureaucracy.
Sultan ruled through a slave called a Wazir who directed the Bureaucracy.
Some Sultans were dominant, others let the Wazir wield great power.
Sultans had to deal politically with the Arabs and Persians and often did not control them directly, but had more of a warlord relationship.
Concubines could gain power and control over the Sultan. But generally Women were considered property of men in the Ottoman Empire.
Sultan's clan and the Bureaucracy ranked the highest. Plantation owners ranked above traders . Slaves ranked lowest.
Europeans surpassed the Turks in every aspect of naval and military technology. Still used gunpowder, but not as effectively as the west.
Traditional Islamic architecture and art.
The Army was populated by conscription. Elite soldiers (Janissaries) were collected through the Divshirme. Their generals wielded immense political power. Calvary was the main component of the army.
Turks never developed naval warfare to match the Europeans.
Turks never developed gunpowder technology to match the Europeans.
By 1650 they had lost the Mediterranean and Indian Ocean
Ottomans vs. Safavids